Gas hydrates and Shale Oil in India

Discussion in 'Economy & Infrastructure' started by Vinod2070, Mar 9, 2010.

  1. Vinod2070

    Vinod2070 मध्यस्थ Stars and Ambassadors

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    Guys this thread is to look at the potential of gas hydrates in solving the energy requirements of India. India is supposed to have the largest gas hydrate deposits in the world and technology is evolving to make its economic extraction feasible.

    We can also discuss shale oil in this thread as another possible energy source, though I am not aware of its potential in India.
     
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  3. Vinod2070

    Vinod2070 मध्यस्थ Stars and Ambassadors

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    Here are some predictions by Swami Iyer for the next decade. One of the major ones is regarding gas hydrates and how India will become the biggest producer of the same in a decade, solving its energy problems and also exporting energy (using the IPI pipe in the reverse directon)! ;)

    In the past decades, India has been world number one in starvation deaths, foreign aid and bribery. In the 2000s, it was transformed from a chronic under-performer to a potential superpower. Here are eight predictions of what it will look like in 2020:

    India will overtake China as the fastest-growing economy in the world. China will start ageing and suffering from a declining workforce, and will be forced to revalue its currency. So its growth will decelerate, just as Japan decelerated in the 1990s after looking unstoppable in the 1980s. Having become the world’s second-biggest economy, China’s export-oriented model will erode sharply — the world will no longer be able to absorb its exports at the earlier pace. Meanwhile,India will gain demographically with a growing workforce that is more literate than ever before. The poorer Indian states will start catching up with the richer ones. This will takeIndia’s GDP growth to 10% by 2020, while China’s growth will dip to 7-8%.

    India will become the largest English-speaking nation in the world, overtaking the US. So, the global publishing industry will shift in a big way toIndia. Rupert Murdoch’s heirs will sell his collapsing media empire to Indian buyers. The New York Times will become a subsidiary of an Indian publishing giant.

    In the 2000s, India finally gained entry into the nuclear club, and sanctions against it were lifted. By 2020, Indian companies will be major exporters of nuclear equipment, a vital link in the global supply chain. So, India will be in a position to impose nuclear sanctions on others.

    India, along with the US and Canada, will develop new technology to extract natural gas from gas hydrates — a solidified form of gas lying on ocean floors.India has the largest gas hydrate deposits in the world, and so will become the biggest global producer. This will enable India to substitute gas for coal in power generation, hugely reducing carbon emissions and making Jairam Ramesh look saintly.

    India will also discover enormous deposits of shale gas in its vast shale formations running through the Gangetic plain, Assam, Rajasthan and Gujarat. New technology has made the extraction of shale gas economic, soIndia will become a major gas producer and exporter. Meanwhile, Iran’s mullahs will be overthrown, and a new democratic regime will usher in rapid economicgrowth that creates a shortage of gas in Iran by 2020. So, the Iran-India pipeline will be recast, but in reverse form: India will now export gas to Iran.

    More and more regions of India will demand separate statehood. By 2020, India will have 50 states instead of the current 28. The new states will not exactly be small. With 50 states and a population of almost 1.5 billion,India will average 30 million people per state, far higher than the current US average of 6 million per state.

    China, alarmed at India’s rise, will raise tensions along the Himalayan border. China will threaten to divert the waters of the Brahmaputra from Tibet to water-scarce northern China.India will threaten to bomb any such project. The issue will go to the Security Council.

    Islamic fundamentalists will take over in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The US will withdraw from the region, leaving India to bear the brunt of consequences. Terrorism will rise in India, but the economy will still keep growing. How so? Well, 3000 people die every year falling off Mumbai’s suburban trains, and that does not stop Mumbai’sgrowth. Terrorism will bruise India, but not halt its growth.
     
  4. Vinod2070

    Vinod2070 मध्यस्थ Stars and Ambassadors

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    May 12, 2004
    Gas hydrates: a gift wrapped in problems

    This piece of good news comes with some caveats. So [t]read with caution.

    Buried deep along India’s 7,500 km of coastline is a vast fuel reserve that can meet our needs for several centuries. Global reserves of gas hydrates—the ‘fuel’ under reference� are estimated to be “twice the known oil and gas reserves of the world.” That quote is from Mr Harsh K Gupta, Secretary to Indian government’s Department of Ocean Development. He was addressing the media in Jan, 2004 during a seminar in Chennai on “New frontiers in marine bioscience research”.

    Gupta was referring to hydrates of methane. Well, what are they? They are part of a chemical formation called gas hydrates in which a core of methane is trapped in a cage of water molecules. They are ice like crystals that lie deep in the oceans, at very high pressures and very low temperatures found at ocean depths greater than 500 metres. Source of this methane is biogenic; from the organic detritus that descend to the ocean floor where bacteria act on them to generate methane.

    The interesting thing is about these hydrates is that at great pressures and low temperatures in the oceans, they are very stable crystals. If mined and brought to atmospheric conditions they produce 160 times their volume of methane. And that is what is seducing energy hunters. Methane is a readily usable fuel.

    Now to the caveats. What are they? First, the technology to mine these hydrates is at its infancy. It may need about twenty years of patient, sensitive development before we have a mature extraction technology. India has entered into an agreement with Russia and some exploratory work has begun.

    Next—and, more seriously— there are two facts that can combine to cause major disasters. Fact-Set-One: there is 3000 times more methane down there than there is now in the atmosphere; methane is 10 times worse than carbon dioxide as a climate warmer. Fact-Set-Two: methane hydrate sediments are close to coastlines; they can be in layers that are 13 kilometres deep; mining for them can set off ‘landslides’ down there.

    The real hazard is when we combine the two sets. Mindless mining can cause landslides, release bursts of methane into the atmosphere and accelerate global warming, with consequences that are well known. All this is because, gas hydrates where they are, are stable; but once dislodged can be—due to their great expansion ratio—very volatile.

    What we are looking at is a potential that we can’t jump at and grab, but must winkle out with great care.

    For those with greater interest in this subject that will be heard more frequently in India in the coming years, here are links to pursue the subject further. For an easy introduction to the subject go to this US Geological Survey page. A slightly more technical page is here. A racy chat on the subject can be found here. Finally, India’s National Institute of Oceanography page on the subject.
     
  5. Vinod2070

    Vinod2070 मध्यस्थ Stars and Ambassadors

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    NGRI to explore gas-hydrates in KG basin

    Vadrevu Srinivas | TNN



    Kakinada: In a pathbreaking endeavour, the National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI) has begun a mammoth survey for exploration of gas-hydrates -- an alternative source of energy -- in the east coast right from Mahanadi reserves to Krishna-Godavari basin covering a staggering distance of 7,200 km.

    Experts said the gas-hydrates --crystalline form of methane and water -- are a viable energy resource. "If tapped, it could serve more than two times the country's total fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) reserve," an expert reasoned.

    Two NGRI scientists Nintala Satyavani and Maheswar Ojha along with three Ph D students -- Vempati Venkatesh, Gullaprthi Sriram and Sudip Ghara -- set out on 'Akedemik Fersman,' a Russian vessel engaged by Marine Geology Services (MGS), from Kakinada deep water port (DWP) on Monday. The research team will conduct a 100-day survey to unearth gas-hydrates.

    The team would go on the high seas for around 3,200 km on Mahanadi side and later cover KG basin. Head of the gas hydrates group Kalachand Sain told TOI that the NGRI had engaged the UK-based MGS for acquiring multi-channel and ocean-bottom seismic data. The survey is being carried out under the aegis of the ministry of earth sciences (MoES).

    The entire data would be analysed at NGRI to identify prospective zones for gas hydrates deposits, demarcate the extension of gas-hydrate bearing sediments and appraise the amount of gas-hydrates. Sain said with the threat of oil reserves exhaustion looming large, the exploration of gas-hydrates would provide a great hope to meet the gigantic need of country's energy requirements.

    He said the consumption of conventional energy resources (oil, gas, coal) is increasing at an alarming rate, whereas discovery of major gas and oil field on which the energy security depends heavily has remained almost stagnant.

    India produces only one-third of her oil requirement and spends a lot from the exchequer for importing oil. "Therefore, there is a necessity for an alternative source of energy for sustainable growth," he opined.

    It is speculated that approximately 1894 TCM of gas exists in the form of gas-hydrates in the deep water regions within the Indian exclusive economic zone (EEZ). This is more than 1500 times the country's present gas reserve. "If we could tap even one per cent of this energy, it could easily meet our energy requirements for a decade at the current rate of consumption," another expert said.

    Analysts said with the NGRI developing the requisite expertise for detection, delineation and quantification of gas-hydrates, it's time India went the whole hog to exploit the alternative source of energy. MGS country manager Abhineet Pathak told TOI that their firm had previously conducted surveys off Japan coast.

    NGRI scientist Satyavani, who was on the Russian vessel, was euphoric. "It could not have come at a better time than the International Women's Day. We hope the gas-hydrates will provide sustainable growth and secure a safer and healthier society in the coming years for the future generations," she said.
     
  6. Vinod2070

    Vinod2070 मध्यस्थ Stars and Ambassadors

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    I think Shale gas and gas hydrates along with our Thorium deposits provide India a way to become energy independent and even a net exporter.

    It is now up to the country to innovate and find a means to exploit this potential.
     
  7. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    http://www.blonnet.com/2008/07/18/stories/2008071852380100.htm

    Gas hydrates: An inexhaustible energy source



    There is little doubt that gas hydrates as a source of energy is big - something that can permanently solve the country’s energy problem.

    M. Ramesh


    Chennai, July 17 Deep below the seabed is an infinite source of energy waiting to be tapped.

    India is sitting on prognosticated gas hydrate resources of 1,894 trillion cubic metres, which is over 1,700 times as much as the proven natural gas reserves with the country — of 1.08 trillion cubic metres.

    To put the resource into perspective, India consumes 90 million standard cubic metres a day of natural gas. If the estimate of prognosticated gas hydrate reserves holds true, the energy source is infinite and can last several tens of thousands of years.

    For sure, the way of getting natural gas from gas hydrates — frozen methane — is unknown to science as yet. But crack the challenge, you have solved the country’s energy problem.

    Of course, ‘prognosticated reserves’ is an educated guess, but still there is little doubt that gas hydrates as a source of energy is very, very big — something that can permanently solve India’s energy problem.

    Indeed, much of this has been known to the Indian hydrocarbon sector for a number of years. But the recent developments in the decade-old National Gas Hydrate Programme (NGHP), while being nowhere near breakthrough, are encouraging.

    The recent conclusion of the first phase of NGHP led to the discovery of gas hydrate occurrences near the Andamans and in the Krishna-Godavari and Mahanadhi basins.

    In December, the NGHP will start collecting more seismic data, drill a few more holes and collect more samples of the iced gas. The exercise will lead to a closer estimate of how much natural gas is available in the hydrates.

    The real challenge begins then. “Nowhere in the world does the technology (for extracting gas out of hydrates) exist,” says Mr V. K. Sibal, Director General Hydrocarbons (DGH). “But we are confident of developing the technology.”

    “Clearly, this is an area of technology leadership for India,” says Mr Jairam Ramesh, Union Minister of State for Power.

    “I don’t see it (gas from gas hydrates) coming in the next five years, but I am sure that in the next 10 years, it will be an important source of energy,” he told Business Line.

    According to the DGH, the delay in the programme taking off was because of “non availability of a suitable deepwater drill-ship with onboard laboratories and experienced staff.”
     
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  8. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    http://www.mydigitalfc.com/news/us-help-india-exploit-shale-gas-039


    US to help India exploit shale gas


    India’s endeavour to attain energy security received a leg up after United States offered

    The partnership has been disucssed between India’s petroleum minister Murli Deora and US deputy secretary of energy, Daniel Pon*eman on sidelines of twelfth International Energy For*um in session at Cancun, Mexico.

    Shale gas has emerged as new and clean source of energy after its exploitation in US over the past one decade. Now, companies in Canada, Europe, Asia and Australia are working towards finding ways for economic exploration of the gas. According to preliminary reports, India has huge shale deposits in several coastal states, Assam, Gujarat and Rajasthan among others.

    India has nearly 1,894 trillion cubic metres of gas hydrates as per preliminary survey. The central government is planning to set up a separate agency to look aft-er gas hydrate programme.

    "They (US) have given a paper to us. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) and directorate general of hydrocarbon (DGH) will evaluate India’s shale gas potential and evaluate how both the countries can work together for its exploitation," a petroleum ministry official told reporters at Cancun.

    "We are in the initial stage of shale gas exploration. Partnership with US will help us to develop the new source of energy," he added.

    India’s partnership with US is likely to enlist geological assistance to find the gas and later evaluating ways to make it available for use. Economic viability in extraction of shale gas is a big problem because establishing flow of gas through rocks is tough.

    "The challenge developing countries (like India) face today is how to provide all their citizens access to modern forms of energy at affordable prices and in an environmentally sustainable manner," Deora said while addressing twelfth International Energy Forum.
     
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  9. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    Shale gas: Could it be a new energy source?

    S A Aiyar, 09 August 2009, 02:32 AM IST
    The world economy is recovering, and the price of oil too. It has crossed $70/barrel, and could return to $150/barrel, if the recovery continues. Can India do anything new to meet this energy challenge?

    Yes, it can change its exploration policy to harness a new energy source — shale gas. No Indian has paid attention to the dramatic emergence of shale gas in the US, which has produced a gas glut. This has slashed the US price of natural gas by 75% from its peak in mid-2008. India must learn from this.

    Shale is a common rock formation across the world. India has huge shale deposits across the Gangetic plain, Assam, Gujarat, Rajasthan, and many coastal areas. Gas has long been found in shale across the world, but its extraction has been viewed as uneconomic because of shale’s low permeability — gas does not flow easily through this rock. So, exploration for oil and gas has traditionally focused on limestone and sandstone, which have high permeability.

    However, in the 1990s a new drilling technology emerged. A tight shale deposit could be cracked open by injecting water into wells at high pressure. When the water injection stopped, the cracks closed again. But then engineers hit on the idea of pumping water mixed with sand.

    The sand kept cracks partially open when water injection stopped, increasing permeability and gas flow.

    A sedimentary rock deposit has a limited depth but very wide area (sometimes hundreds of square miles). Traditional vertical drilling into a deposit 20 metres deep can yield gas production from a zone of just 20 metres. But new techniques have facilitated horizontal drilling. This makes possible horizontal wells running hundreds of metres long through shale strata, greatly increasing the production zone of each well. Horizontal drilling plus sand cracking have revolutionized the economics of shale gas in the US, and made it a boom industry.

    Huge shale deposits lie at shallow depths across the world, and can be explored at a tiny fraction of the hundreds of millions involved in deep offshore wells (as in the Krishna-Godavari basin). The low cost per well compensates for the low yield per well. The share of shale gas in the US gas production has moved up from zero to 8%. One single deposit, the Barnett Shale in Texas, produced 1.1 trillion cubic feet of gas in 2008, and other deposits (Bakken, Haynesville) could be as productive. Anadarko Petroleum is ramping up drilling in the relatively lowyielding Marcellus Shale (stretching hundreds of miles from West Virginia to New York), aiming to achieve a 10% rate of return at a gas price of $2.50/mm British Thermal Unit. This is well below the current US price of $3.70, and a fraction of the $13 in June 2008. It is also well below the $4.20 the government has fixed for KG basin gas, and is close to the $2.34 Anil Ambani is demanding. So, at least some shale gas deposits look entirely economic.

    Why has no company in India explored for shale gas despite several rounds of bidding for exploration blocks in the last two decades? The sad answer is that our exploration policy allows companies to produce only conventional oil and gas from their exploration blocks. If they find non-conventional energy — such as coal-bed methane or shale gas — they are forbidden to produce this! Why? Because, the petroleum ministry regards any non-conventional deposit as an unwarranted windfall for the exploring company, and wants separate bidding for non-conventional energy. For coalbed gas, it has called for bids and awarded exploration contracts in known coal deposits. But gas can also be found in deep coal deposits unknown today. When drilling for oil, Indian companies have already hit thick coal seams deep underground, but not bothered to test these for gas because they would not be allowed to extract it.

    The same holds for shale gas. When drilling for oil, every company hits shale deposits, but ignores their gas potential since they are not allowed to harness it.

    Clearly, two changes in exploration policy are urgently needed. First, the government needs to come out with a shale gas policy. It should facilitate seismic surveys that can quickly delineate potential shale gas deposits, and then invite bids for exploration.

    Second, all future exploration contracts for oil should permit exploitation of shale gas as well as conventional gas. That will make it worthwhile for companies to investigate shale gas they may find while drilling for conventional hydrocarbons.

    These policy changes will not cost the government a rupee. They will simply relax the boundaries of exploration. That alone can make a big difference.
     
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  10. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    Results of the Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01

    [​IMG]
    While the United States have massive amounts of gas hydrates, one estimate is that the U.S. has only one quarter of the world’s hydrate resource. Gas hydrates are primarily located in Arctic permafrost and marine continental slope environments..

    Recently an international partnership led by the Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (DGH) under the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (Government of India) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released the results of the most complex and comprehensive gas hydrate field venture yet conducted. Upon the occasion of the Indian National Gas Hydrate Program Gas Hydrate Conference held February 6-8, 2008 in New Delhi, India, the leadership and participants in the Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 are pleased to release the results of the first modern, fully integrated gas hydrate research and exploration program conducted in the offshore of India.
    Press Release: DOE/NETL Indian Ocean Hydrate Research Press Release

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 311 A transect of four sites across the Northern Cascadia margin was cored during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 311 to study gas hydrate occurrences and formation models for accretionary complexes. In addition, a fifth site representing a cold vent with active fluid and gas flow, was visited. The four transect sites represent different stages in the evolution of gas hydrate across the margin from the earliest occurrence on the westernmost first accreted ridge to its final stage at the eastward limit of gas hydrate occurrence on the margin in shallower water.
    Website: IODP Expedition 311

    What Are Gas Hydrates?

    Gas hydrates are a naturally occurring “ice-like” combination of natural gas (usually methane) and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions. In 1990’s, the U.S. Geological Survey made the first systematic assessment of the volume of gas stored in natural gas hydrates. That study suggested that the amount of gas in the gas hydrate accumulations of the world greatly exceeds the volume of known conventional gas resources. However, gas hydrates represent both a scientific and technologic challenge and much remains to be learned about the geologic, engineering, and economic factors controlling the ultimate energy resource potential of gas hydrates.

    The amount of natural gas contained in the world's gas hydrate accumulations is enormous, but these estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 2,800 to 8,000,000 trillion cubic meters of gas. By comparison, conventional natural gas accumulations (reserves and technically recoverable undiscovered resources) for the world are estimated at approximately 440 trillion cubic meters as reported in the USGS World Petroleum Assessment 2000 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/dds/dds-060/). Gas recovery from hydrates is hindered because the gas is in a solid form and because hydrates commonly occur in remote Arctic and deep marine environments. Proposed methods of gas recovery from hydrates generally deal with dissociating gas hydrates in situ by heating the reservoir beyond the temperature of gas hydrate formation, or decreasing the reservoir pressure below hydrate equilibrium. The pace of gas hydrate energy characterization and assessment projects has accelerated over the past several years. Researchers have long speculated that gas hydrates could eventually be a commercial resource yet technical and economic hurdles have historically made gas hydrate development a distant goal rather than a near-term possibility. This view began to change with the realization that this unconventional resource could be developed in conjunction with conventional gas fields.

    Expedition Objectives

    GNGHP Expedition 01 was designed to study the gas hydrate occurrences both spatially and temporally off the Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin with special emphasis on understanding the geologic and geochemical controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate in these two diverse settings. The primary goal of NGHP Expedition 01 was to conduct scientific ocean drilling/coring, logging, and analytical activities to assess the geologic occurrence, regional context, and characteristics of gas hydrate deposits along the continental margins of India in order to meet the long term goal of exploiting gas hydrates as a potential energy resource in a cost-effective and safe manner. During NGHP Expedition 01, dedicated gas hydrate coring, drilling, and downhole logging operations were conducted from 28 April, 2006 to the 19 August, 2006.

    Based on analysis of geological and geophysical data, the Expedition was planned to visit ten sites in four areas: the Kerala-Konkan Basin in the Arabian Sea – western continental shelf of India; the petroliferous Krishna-Godawari Basin and Mahanadi Basin in the Bay of Bengal – eastern continental shelf of India; and the previously unexplored Andaman Islands. The goals of the cruise were to conduct scientific drilling, well logging, coring, and shipboard scientific analyses of recovered samples from each site to provide further insight into:

    the distribution and nature of gas hydrate in marine sediments

    the geologic controls on the formation and occurrence of gas hydrate in nature

    the processes that transport gas from source to reservoir

    the effect of gas hydrate on the physical properties of the host sediments

    the microbiology and geochemistry of gas hydrate formation and dissociation

    the calibration of geophysical and other predictive tools to the observed presence and concentration of gas hydrates.

    Participants

    NGHP Expedition 01 was planned and managed through a collaboration between the Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (DGH) under the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (Government of India), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the Consortium for Scientific Methane Hydrate Investigations (CSMHI) led by Overseas Drilling Limited (ODL) and FUGRO McClelland Marine Geosciences (FUGRO). The platform for the drilling operation was the research drill ship JOIDES Resolution (JR), operated by ODL. Much of the drilling/coring equipment used was provided by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) through a loan agreement with the US National Science Foundation (NSF). Wireline pressure coring systems and supporting laboratories were provided by IODP/Texas A&M University (TAMU), FUGRO, USGS, U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) and HYACINTH/GeoTek. Downhole logging operational and technical support was provided by Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) of Columbia University.

    The science team was led by Dr. Timothy Collett of the USGS, and consisted of more than 100 leading scientists and professionals representing the following organizations:

    Binghamton University Colorado School of Mines
    Directorate General for Hydrocarbons (India)
    Fugro-McClelland, Inc.
    GAIL (India) Ltd
    Geological Survey of Canada
    Geotek Ltd
    Idaho National Laboratory
    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
    Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc.
    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
    Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (India)
    McGill University
    National Energy Technology Laboratory
    National Institute of Oceanography (India)
    National Institute of Ocean Technology (India)
    Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (India)
    Ocean Drilling Limited

    Oregon State University OIL India Ltd
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
    Reliance Industries Limited (India)
    Schlumberger
    Technical University of Berlin
    Texas A&M University
    University of California, San Diego
    University of Cardiff
    University of New Hampshire
    Universität Bremen
    University of Rhode Island
    U.S. Department of Energy
    U.S. Geological Survey
    U.S. National Science Foundation
    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Operational Highlights

    During its 113.5-day voyage, the expedition cored or drilled 39 holes at 21 sites (one site in the Kerala-Konkan Basin, 15 sites in the Krishna-Godavari Basin, four sites in the Mahanadi Basin and one site in the Andaman deep offshore areas), penetrated more than 9,250 meters of sedimentary section, and recovered nearly 2,850 meters of core. Twelve holes were logged with logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools and an additional 13 holes were wireline logged. The operational highlights of NGHP Expedition 01 included the following:

    113.5 days of operation without any reportable injury or incident.

    Only 1% of total operation time was down time due to equipment malfunction or weather.

    Examination of 9,250 meters of sedimentary section at 39 locations within 21 sites located in four geologically-distinct settings.

    Collected LWD log data in 12 holes at 10 sites.

    Collected wireline log data at 13 sites.

    Collected vertical seismic profile data at six sites.

    Collected 494 cores, encompassing 2,850 meters of sediment, from 21 holes (78% overall recovery).

    Collected detailed shallow geochemical profiles at 13 locations.

    Established temperature gradients at 11 locations.

    Extensive sample collection to support a wide range of post-cruise analyses, including:

    Collected about 6,800 whole round core samples for examination of interstitial water geochemistry, microbiology, and other information.

    Collected more than 12,500 core subsamples for paleomagnetic, mineralogical, paleontological, and other analyses.

    Collected about 140 gas-hydrate-bearing sediment samples for storage in liquid nitrogen.

    Collected five one-meter-long gas-hydrate-bearing pressure cores for analysis of the physical and mechanical properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediment.

    Collected 21 re-pressurized cores (nine representing sub-samples from gas-hydrate-bearing pressure cores).

    Conducted 97 deployments of advanced pressure coring devices, resulting in the collection of 49 cores that contain virtually undisturbed gas hydrate in host sediments at near in situ pressure conditions.

    Scientific Findings and Impact

    The NGHP Expedition 01 Initial Reports, released at the conference in New Delhi, includes a series of integrated site chapters (Sites 1-21) describing the operational history and scientific data collected during the expedition. The Initial Reports volume also includes a companion publication that contains all downhole log data collected during the expedition.

    The NGHP Expedition 01 science team utilized extensive on-board lab facilities to examine and prepare preliminary reports on the physical properties, geochemistry, and sedimentology of all the data collected prior to the end of the expedition. Although the data will continue to inform gas hydrates science for years to come, the following are some key scientific highlights of the expedition to date:

    Conducted comprehensive analyses of gas-hydrate-bearing marine sediments in both passive continental margin and marine accretionary wedge settings.

    The calculated depth to the base of the methane hydrate stability zone, as derived from downhole temperature measurements, closely matches the depth of the seismic identified bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) at most of the sites established during this expedition.

    Discovered gas hydrate in numerous complex geologic settings and collected an unprecedented number of gas hydrate cores.

    Most of the recovered gas hydrate was characterized as either pore-filling grains or particles disseminated in coarser grain sediments or as a fracture-filling material in clay dominated sediments.

    The occurrence of concentrated gas hydrate is mostly controlled by the presence of fractures and/or coarser grained (mostly sand-rich) sediments.

    Gas hydrate was found occurring in “combination reservoirs” consisting of horizontal or subhorizontal coarse grained permeable sediments (sands for the most part) and apparent vertical to subvertical fractures that provide the conduits for gas migration.

    Delineated and sampled one of the richest marine gas hydrate accumulations ever discovered (Site NGHP-01-10 in the Krishna-Godavari Basin).

    Discovered one of the thickest and deepest gas hydrate occurrences yet known (offshore of the Andaman Islands, Site NGHP-01-17) which revealed gas-hydrate-bearing volcanic ash layers as deep as 600 meters below the seafloor.

    Established the existence of a fully developed gas hydrate system in the Mahanadi Basin of the Bay of Bengal.

    Most of the gas hydrate occurrences discovered during this expedition appear to contain mostly methane which was generated by microbial processes. However, there is also evidence of a thermal origin for a portion of the gas within the hydrates of the Mahanadi Basin and the Andaman offshore area.

    Gas hydrate in the Krishna-Godavari Basin appears to be closely associated with large scale structural features, in which the flux of gas through local fracture systems, generated by the regional stress regime, controls the occurrence and distribution of gas hydrate.

    Future Directions

    NGHP Expedition 01 has shown that conventional sand and fractured-clay reservoirs are the primary emerging economic targets for gas hydrate production in India. Because conventional marine exploration and production technologies favor the sand-dominated gas hydrate reservoirs, investigation of sand reservoirs will likely have a higher near-term priority in the NGHP program. It is perceived that the NGHP effort will likely include future seismic studies, drilling, coring, and field production testing. It has been concluded that Site 10 represents a world class shale dominated fracture gas hydrate reservoir, worthy of further investigation. NGHP Expedition 01 also discovered significant sand and silt dominated gas hydrate reservoirs. It has been proposed that in a 2009-2010 time-frame, NGHP Expedition 02 may be constituted to drill and log several of the most promising gas hydrate sand-dominated prospects.
     
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  11. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    NGHP Expedition 01 consisted of three primary phases:

    [​IMG]
    India Project Location Map.

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    Research Ship at port.

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    Core Studies: Describing the core and measuring the core temperature.

    [​IMG]
    Core Studies:

    [​IMG]
    Core Drill


    Phase-I Project Planning and Mobilization: including development of a project prospectus; mobilization of the scientific ocean drilling vessel JOIDES Resolution, from Galveston, Texas to Mumbai, India; and the staffing of the science team.

    Phase-II Field Project Management, Operations and Research: the operational phase of NGHP Expedition 01 began with the arrival of the scientific crew in Mumbai, India on April 28, 2006 and ended 113 days later with the departure of ship from its final berth in Chennai on August 19, 2006. The Expedition consisted of five separate “legs” as follows:

    Leg 1 (April 28-May 16): Sailed southwest from Mumbai to a location in the Kerala-Konkan Basin, Arabian Sea; conducted drilling, logging, and coring operations; then sailed around the southern tip of India to port in Chennai.

    Leg 2 (May 17-June 6): Conducted personnel and equipment transfers in Chennai, then sailed to ten sites in the Krishna-Godawari and Mahanadi basins; conducted logging-while-drilling (LWD) operations; returned to Chennai.

    Leg 3a (June 7-June 25): Informed with the LWD results, the crew sailed to a total of four selected sites within Krishna-Godawari basin for drilling, coring, and logging operations, before returning to Chennai for personnel and equipment transfers.

    Leg 3b (June 26-July 17): Conducted additional drilling, coring, and logging operations at five additional sites within the Krishna-Godawari region.

    Leg 4: (July 18-August 19): After personnel transfers via Helicopter, the team sailed east and cored a site east of Little Andaman Island, then traveled northwest to two sites within the Mahanadi Basin, then moved southwest to further explore two additional sites within the Krishna-Godawari Basin, before finally sailing to Chennai. Drilling, coring, and logging operations were conducted at each site during Leg 4.

    Phase-III: Demobilization and Collaborative Post-Field Project Analysis of Geologic Data and Samples (ongoing): Including a wide range of collaborative post-field analysis of samples collected during the Expedition and reporting of the geologic results of this effort.
     
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  12. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    The National Methane Hydrates R&D Program

    [​IMG]
    MR MURLI DEORA (centre), India's Minister for Petroleum and Natural Gas, Mr M.B. Lal, Chairman and Managing Director, HPCL, and Dr Timothy S. Collett, of the US Geological Survey, on board the research vessel JOIDES Resolution in Mumbai, India. Photo from the hindubusinessline.com

    Indian Ocean Hydrate Research
    On May 3, 2006 the scientific research drill ship `JOIDES Resolution', hired by the Indian Government to explore deep-sea gas hydrate reserves of the coast of India, sailed from Mumbai and commenced drilling, coring, and logging operations at several locations in the Indian Ocean. The U.S. Department of Energy has provided limited support to assist in the deployment of several shipboard research tools developed by DOE supported projects as part of the National Methane Hydrate R&D Program, as well as funding for post-cruise research efforts. The ship will explore prospective gas hydrate fields along the western coast in Konkan, the Krishna Godavari basin, Mahanadi and areas around the Andaman seas. The drilling and exploration will be carried out by Indian and international scientists, with Dr Timothy S. Collett, Research Geologist of the US Geological Survey, serving as the co-chief scientist of the exploration team.

    In the May 1, 2005 issue of The Hindu Businessline (http://www.thehindubusinessline.com), Mr Murli Deora, India's Union Minister for Petroleum and Natural Gas, is quoted as saying "that total prognosticated resource of offshore gas hydrates in India was 1,894 trillion cubic metres, 1,900 times the country's current gas reserves".

    The exploration will be conducted under India's National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) of the Directorate General of Hydrocarbons. Mr Deora also stated that "even if India is able to tap one per cent of the estimated gas hydrate reserves, the energy requirement for the coming decades can be met".
     
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  13. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    GAS HYDRATE STUDIES IN – ONGC APPROACH

    ABSTRACT:

    Gas hydrate is one of the non-conventional source of energy identified recently by ONGC worthy to be studied for possible exploration and exploration to meet the burgeoning demand of hydrocarbons and ensuring energy security for the country, ONGC has set three milestones viz., (1) Estimation of gas hydrate and free gas underlying gas hydrate resources in the Indian deep offshore from seismic data and geological information, (2) Sampling hydrated sediments in identified areas (3) Development of technology for their exploitation in collaboration with universities and organizations from India/abroad to meet the above objectives in the interest of the country. As a first step, studies of existing seismic data was initiated in 1996. Preliminary analysis of seismic data along the east and West Coast deep-water area of India has brought out about 80,000 sq.km. area having potential hydrate deposits in Andaman-Nicobar, Krishna-Godavari, Konkan and Kutch offshore. With advancement in geological and geophysical understanding ONGC confirmed about 1400 sq.km. area in Krishna-Godavari deep offshore as potential hydrate province based on seismic attributes viz. interval velocity, polarity, amplitude vanstion with offset at bottom simulating reflector (BSR) level and other geoscientific information (bathymetry structure, thickness of hydrate stability zone (HSZ), rate of sedimentation, depositional set up, TOC etc.)
    Thus, technological milestone to evaluate hydrate potential from seismic data is partly achieved through R&D efforts. Further, sampling at identified locations will help in understanding the processes of hydrate formation and its habitats and in calibration of the seismic data leading to refined resource/ reserve estimate. These parameters are critical for effective planning of exploration. The other areas are under study for assigning priorities based on the hydrate potential so that a comprehensive techno-economic perspective can be evolved to initialise hydrate exploration operation in Indian environment prior to their cost-effective exploration.

    INTRODUCTION:

    Naturally occurring gas hydrates are ice like compounds in which gas molecules, methane in most cases, are en-eaged in interstices for hydrogen bonded water lattices at low temperature and high pressure. The first evidence of such naturally occurring gas hydrate deposits was found in Messiyokha field in Russian permafrost region. Subsequently gas hydrates were also found in shallow marine sediments of arctic region during various ODP legs in tropical deep-water areas where water depth exceeds 650-750 meters, the pressure temperature conditions are favourable for formation of gas hydrates. Gas hydrates accumulation in deep-water areas is believed to be due to accumulation of biogenic methane generated in shallow sediments. Area with higher sedimentation rates are thus favourable for such accumulation as the organic carbon is preserved due to its rapid burial.

    The fact that 164 cubic meters of methane gas is trapped in one cubic meter of gas hydrate and large area of deep water have favourable conditions of formation for gas hydrate makes it a suitable candidate as an alternative sourse of energy. In view of this goal, in 1997 a National Gas Hydrate Programme was launched by MOPNG. Simultaneously ONGC, GAIL and DGH started in house studies for evaluation of gas hydrates in Indian offshore areas.

    In India ONGC is the only agency equipped with the capability for evaluation of gas hydrate potential due to its inherent strength in terms of expertise on acquisition, processing and interpretation of seismic data. Reallsing its national obligation and possibility of exploitation of gas hydrates as a future business opportunity. ONGC has taken up the job of detailed planning/implementation of various aspects of gas hydrate exploration and exploitation. The first step towards such studies was initiated in 1996. Preliminary analysis of seismic data along the Eastern and Western deep water area of has India brought out the potential areas for gas hydrate occurrence which includes the area of Andaman-Nicobar, Krishna-Godavari, Konkan and Kutch offshore upto a bathymetry of 3000 meters.

    INITIAL STUDIES:

    Major part of the deep water areas of India is covered by Multi channel Seismic data acquired by ONGC. Although way back in 1984, BSR was identified and reported in Andaman area (Chopra N.N., 1984), in integrated study for identification of gas hydrate prone areas of Indian offshore was taken up only in the year 1996. During this study the existing data beyond 600m. Isobath was scanned for evidences of gas hydrate based on the attributes of BSR like Blanking, Polanty Reversal etc. A qualitative map prepared based on this study has brought out about 80,000 sq. km of area in the Indian deep waters upto 3000 meters isobath, as favourable for gas hydrate occurrence (Kuldip Chandra etal., 1998). Reprocessing of seismic data was suggested for confirmation of BSR in the favourable areas. Work Association with Dr. T.Yuan, from Uvie, Canada was conducted during May 1997 to October 1997, through which a methodology was developed for reprocessing of seismic data for gas hydrate. This methodology stressed the importance of velocity analysis in the hydrate stability zons (HSZ). Fourteen seismic lines segments distributed in East and West Coast deep water were reprocessed during this work association. Very clear BSRs cutting across sedimentary sequences supported by interval velocity inversion were observed beyond 800-900 m bathymetry in few lines of Krishna Godavari deep offshore. This study had brought out that Easter offshore is more favourable as compared to western offshore.

    IN-HOUSE STUDIES:

    Bathymetry maps for Eastern and Western offshore areas of India were prepared which helped in understanding seafloor morphology. Based on the encouraging results of initial studies, Krishna-Godavari offshore area was taken up for detailed study. Twelve Seismic lines were reprocessed in this area and 1400 sq.km area was identified as gas hydrate prone. Taking in to consideration the hydrated sediment velocity of 1700-1900 and non-hydrated sediment velocity of 1500-1600 as observed from stacking interval velocity, geological consideration of high sedimentation rate and rich organic content an estimate of gas resources of this area was made which works out to be about 350-900 bcm. As this is a very crude estimate due to the limitations in picking stacking velocity, further efforts are to be made for the accurate assessment of the saturation of gas hydrates and underlying free gas using refined methods. To know the ground truth and for callbration of results obtained from seismic, sampling of the identified BSR zone by drilling is essential Plans to collect sea bottom samples for Geo-chemical studies are in the pipeline. Parallel initiatives for R&D work in Drilling, Production and transporation are to be taken up.

    ONGC’s VISION:

    The approach adopted by ONGC is to utilize the existing data and to develop in house or obtain capability to reach the goal of exploitation of gas hydrates. Exploitation from relatively softer targets of underlying free gas is to be taken up first. Studies in logistically best suited and more favourable Geological setting conducive to gas hydrate formation and areas of high density of gas hydrate occurrence are to be taken up in the initial phases. Efforts for estimating the resources of hydrates for deep offshore areas are to be continued. Research & Development efforts are to be continued to help materialize commercial exploitation of this non-conventional hydrocarbon of vast resources within a few next decades.
     
  14. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    POTENTIAL NATURAL GAS HYDRATES RESOURCES IN INDIAN OFFSHORE AREAS


    The first indication of presence of gas hydrates in Indian Offshore dates back to 1984 when Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC) (Chopra, 1984) identified BSR for the first time in Andaman offshore. Exploratory assessment for the possible presence of gas hydrates in Indian Offshore areas by ONGC and National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) sparked the interest in natural gas hydrates. The Indian Geophysical Union (IGU) Conference held in 1995 at National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI), Hyderabad, India deliberated the topic of Indian Gas Hydrates resources. Subsequently, Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas (MOP&NG), Government of India established an expert committee to recommend the steps to be undertaken for exploration and development of gas hydrate resources in India. Based on the recommendations, a National Gas Hydrate Programme (NGHP) was instituted in 1997. Simultaneously, ONGC, GAIL and Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (DGH), (oil industry), and the national laboratories such as NIO and NGRI initiated in house R&D activities related to gas hydrates for mapping and evaluation of gas hydrate resources in Indian Offshore. To give further thrust to the gas hydrate related activities, MOP&NG reconstituted the NGHP in the year 2000. The ultimate goal of the programme was to achieve maximum self-sufficiency in hydrocarbons through tapping this unconventional source of energy. The roadmap is in place to achieve the commercial production of gas from gas hydrates beyond 2008.

    Large amount of Multi-channel Seismic reflection data was acquired by oil industry for exploration of hydrocarbon in the Indian Deepwater basins, beyond 400m isobath. These data were examined for BSRs, blanking above BSRs, polarity reversals etc (geophysical proxies of gas hydrates). A qualitative map prepared based on the inferred BSRs brought out a deepwater area of about 80,000 sq.km unto 3000m isobath as favourable for gas hydrate occurrence (Kuldeep Chandra et. at. 1998). Methodology for reprocessing of seismic data was evolved during 1997 to infer BSRs (gas hydrates) by ONGC in collaboration with University of Victoria (UV), Canada. Subsequently several seismic line segments from the Indian offshore areas were reprocessed. Clear BSRs cutting across the sedimentary strata supported with interval velocity inversion in Krishna-Godavari deep offshore Basin were observed. The swath bathymetry maps generated for Eastern and Western offshore areas depict the seafloor morphology. Based on the encouraging results of these initial studies, further reprocessing of the seismic data was carried out by ONGC in a selected area in the Krishna-Godavari Basin. (Figure 1).

    Geophysical proxies in Andaman Sea

    The Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (DGH) simultaneously carried out gas hydrates related studies in collaboration with Western Geophysical and LARGE of Russia, using MCS data that was acquired for hydrocarbon exploration in the Andaman deepwater area during the three different campaigns in 1996-97, 1999 and 2001. The BSRs are seen cut across the upper Miocene to Middle Miocene strata, and broadly follow the seabed topography. The processed MCS data show the indications of free gas below the BSRs and the corresponding seismic signatures resemble like the anticlinal closures. It was also observed that the BSRs appear to be serving as the cap for the underlying free gas. The BSRs were mapped over an area of about 3000 sq.km. Seven gas hydrate-bearing prospects have been identified below the seabed in the water depths of 850m to 2000m. High amplitude BSR Zones are parallel to central half graben feature of the fore arc basin. The flat spot identified in few structural prospects beneath the BSRs, suggests possible gas water contact (Figure 2).

    Pre-stack Genetic Algorithm (GA) inversion, a full waveform inversion method, was carried out by the Western Geophysical to confirm the seismic anomalies. The GA pre-stack inversion extracts Vp, Vs, density and Poisson’s Ratio (PR) from non-NMO corrected gathers were processed for AVO using pre-stack time migration and non-muted processing sequences. Results of post-stack hybrid inversion indicate that low PR anomalies generally associate with BSRs are not strikingly obvious. However, localized anomalies were observed at few locations (Figure 3).

    The GAIL (India) Ltd., one of the National Companies in collaboration with the national laboratories such as NIO and NGRI carried out gas hydrates studies using about 4300 lkm of MCS data pertaining to Kerala-Konkan Basin in the west coast, and inferred BSRs which are strong, moderate and week. Based on the results of multidisciplinary studies carried in collaboration with DGH, ONGC, GAIL and NIO, three offshore areas i.e. Krishna-Godavari basin in the east coast, Kerala-Konkan basin in the west coast and Andaman offshore area were delineated for further geoscientific investigations to infer more proxies related to gas hydrate before coring/ drilling of the gas hydrate bearing sediments. The Swath bathymetry, deep tow digital side scan sonar images, Chirp Sonar, Gravity, Magnetic, geological, geochemical and Microbiological data were generated in two phases during 2002-2003 as a first step to understand the shallow geology of the areas. The gravity cores and water samples collected were analyzed for physical properties, gas chemistry and microbial signatures in the east and west coast areas. The high-resolution sparker data, which was earlier planned could not be acquired due to malfunctioning of equipment. Efforts are being made to acquire this data and use it to infer BSRs before coring of gas hydrate sediments in the first quarter of 2005.

    Multidisciplinary investigations in Krishna-Godavari Basin

    Analysis and interpretation of the geophysical, geological, geochemical and microbial data have revealed the presence of several gas hydrate proxies in the east coast area. Deep Tow Digital Side Scan Sonar images depict the presence of clusters of pockmarks and carbonate reef like features on seabed. The multi-frequency Chirp Sonar and 3-5 KHz Sub-bottom profiler records depict the penetration up to 40-60m below the seabed and several gas escape features and gas plumes unambiguously. Sometimes, the seabed is seen affected by gas up trust and in some other cases the sub-bottom reflectors are affected by gas masking. Blanking or disappearance of reflector is commonly seen in the KG basin. The high resolution Swath Bathymetry map depicts macro and micro bathymetry features more conspicuously. A WNW-ESE trending positive topography feature (sedimentary ridge) appears to be similar to Blake Ridge is a conspicuous geomorphic feature, which needs to be investigated thoroughly. The crest of the ridge rises from the surrounding water depth of >1400 to <900m. The width of the ridge is about 10 km. In northwestern part of the study area, a fault controlled fan like geomorphic feature is also observed.

    Study of 5 m long gravity cores reveal the variation of methane concentration in the top sediments between 0 and 2.27nm, whereas the highest concentration of >158nm was observed in the bottom sediments of one of the cores. The methane enrichment trend with the core depth was observed at 23 out of 76 sample locations. On the other hand SO42- reduction trend with core depth was noticed at more than 48 out of 76 core locations. The Cl- profiles do not depict much variation with depth. However, low concentration of Cl- (~500NM) is observed at several locations. The Organic Carbon (TOC) concentration (Wt %) varies between 0.35 and 1.35 at middle level and a high concentration of > 2.5 were at one location. XRD and SEM studies indicate the presence of authigenic carbonates in subsurface layers, which might have formed in presence of the methane gas rising from the deeper layers.

    ‘Ba’ enrichment of nearly 5 to 6 times is observed in bottom of cores compared to core top. These elevated ‘Ba’ concentrations at the core bottom suggest Barium front phenomenon. The observed ‘Ba front’ serves as precursor to predict the occurrence of methane below the sulfate reduction zone. The ‘Ba’ enrichment trend has been noted at more than 25 locations. These observed trends of methane enrichment, sulfate reduction and Cl- depletion with depth appear to be related to the processes of ‘Sulfate Methane Interface’ (SMI) though this needs further investigation through analysis of longer cores.

    The microbiological studies revealed presence of SRB_r, SRB_f and NRB in appreciable quantities at the bottom layers, probably a strong indicative of continuous supply of methane from the subsurface layers. Integration of geophysical, geological, geochemical and microbiological data results suggests that KG basin is highly conducive for gas hydrate occurrence. This belief is further strengthened by the presence of several gas hydrates layers through the recent drilling activity by private companies and ONGCL, and MWD logs.

    Multidisciplinary investigations in Kerala-Konkan Basin

    Similar multidisciplinary studies were carried out in Kerala-Konkan offshore basin in west coast. A positive NW-SW trending topographic feature rising from 2400m from surrounding seafloor at 3000m in the central part of study area is noteworthy. The seafloor images obtained from deep tow digital Side Scan Sonar system are devoid of pock marks and gas escape features and the multi-frequency Chirp Sonar and 3.5 KHz sub-bottom profiler data are devoid of gas escape features, excepting some micro features resembling as the gas escape feature. On the other hand, some seismic sections show the presence of BRS like features, and the analysis of core samples indicate the presence of methane enrichment, sulfate reduction and chloride depletion trends with core depth. The geochemical and microbiological parameters show TOC increase at 10, CaCO3 increase trend at 9, CH4 enrichment at 12, Cl- depletion at 10 and SO42- reduction at 11, SRB_r minimum count at 19 and SRB_f appreciate quantity at 10 locations respectively.

    Inferences

    Synthesis of multidisciplinary data results indicate that Kerala-Konkan basin area in west Coast is also a promising prospect from gas hydrate occurrence point of view, but needs intense studies including acquisition of high resolution sparker data and collection of long cores (>20 m) to confirm SMI. Based on studies carried out so far on gas hydrate exploration, the probable presence of gas hydrates in the Krishna-Godavari Basin in the east coast and Andaman offshore are very high when compared with that of Kerala-Konkan basin.

    The NGHP, under the guidance of Government of India decided to carry out drilling/ coring at 10 locations in first quarter of the year 2005 of the possible gas hydrate bearing sediments in the above three Indian Offshore areas to characterize the gas hydrate bearing sediments and to asses the resource potential.
     
  15. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    India has 2,000 trn cubic ft prognostic gas hydrates pool

    New Delhi, Feb 6: India has around 2,000 trillion cubic feet of prognostic reserves of gas hydrates off the country’s east coast, directorate-general of Hydrocarbons (DGH) on Wednesday said.

    “Even if 10% of these reserves are recoverable, that is a huge potential waiting to be tapped,” DGH director-general VK Sibal said at the International Conference on Gas Hydrates at Noida, on the outskirts of the national capital.

    Gas hydrate is methane gas trapped in a cage of water molecules. They are ice-like crystals that lie 200 to 800 metre below the sea bed, at very high pressures and very low temperatures. These have been found in Krishna Godavari, North East Coast, Mahanadi and Andaman basin, he said. If mined and brought to atmospheric conditions, they produce 160 times their volume of methane but the technology to mine these hydrates is at its infancy. Petroleum secretary MS Srinivasan said the vast gas hydrate reserves can meet the energy needs for centuries. Global reserves of gas hydrates are estimated to be twice the known oil and gas reserves of the world.

    “About 742,000 trillion gas hydrate reserves across the globe are waiting to be tapped,” he said. Sibal said sizable reserves of good quality gas hydrates in KG basin have been found during test drilling. “We have the thickest gas hydrates in the world.” “Till now, we have drilled at 20 sites and 11, all of them on off east coast, have given us gas hydrate,” he said, adding that the government's National Gas Hydrate Programme in its second phase will conduct surveys to map the hydrate pools.
     
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  16. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    Govt to restructure gas hydrate programme

    Under a new plan an agency will be set up to push efforts to extract fuel from the ocean-based source

    New Delhi: India plans to revamp the National Gas Hydrate Programme and set up an agency to push the government’s bid to extract fuel from the ocean-based source and reduce its dependence on imports.

    Gas hydrates are methane molecules trapped in ice. The hydrate blocks look like chocolate bars, with each slab containing the fuel. Theoretically, each cubic metre of hydrate contains around 164 cu. m of methane or natural gas.

    The National Gas Hydrate Programme was started in 1997 by the petroleum ministry. In 2000, the Director General of Hydrocarbons (DGH) became the technical coordinator of the programme, and through a scientific cooperation programme with the US, India acquired core samples of gas hydrates. After the US and Japan, India is the third country to have done this.

    While the current structure involves various officials on the payroll of different government organizations working on the programme guided by a steering committee of the petroleum ministry, the new system would bring them together under one organization —the National Research and Development Centre for Gas Hydrates—to improve efficiency.

    The centre is expected to be set up in Navi Mumbai due to its proximity to a port.

    “We have made a proposal and within two months, what model comes up needs to be deliberated. We have established the reserves,” said director general of hydrocarbons (DGH) S.K. Srivastava.

    According to government estimates, India has 1,894 trillion cu. m of gas hydrates in its waters. However, the technology to tap gas from gas hydrates is still experimental, and the extraction could come at a big environmental cost. One kg of methane has almost 23 times the greenhouse warming potential of carbon dioxide. At least half the methane in the world is believed to be trapped under the ocean floor, close to coast lines.

    The steering committee is headed by the petroleum secretary and consists of DGH along with heads of state-owned Oil and Natural Gas Corp. Ltd (ONGC), GAIL (India) Ltd, Oil India Ltd and Oil Industry Development Board among others as members. There is also a technical committee with DGH as programme coordinator and having operational sub groups.

    The board of directors of the new gas hydrate agency will comprise members of firms and institutes who will sponsor the programme along with eminent scientists. Along with an operational wing, it will have a geology and geophysics lab besides a research and development wing, an engineering lab and an environment impact assessment lab.

    “To improve efficiency, we felt that it has to be done in a formal and time-bound manner,” said Srivastava, who is also director of operations at state-run Oil India. The centre will conduct field implementation of R&D (research and development) finds, geoscientific surveys and address safety and environment issues. The petroleum ministry will nominate a full-time gas hydrate programme manager as part of the initiative.

    Blocks that were awarded before the new exploration licensing policy (Nelp) are to be studied by ONGC on the east coast and on the west by Oil India and GAIL, while the Andaman area is to be studied by DGH. The post-Nelp blocks are to be studied by DGH. The government auctions oil and gas blocks for exploration and extraction through Nelp; eight rounds of auctions have been held so far since 1999.

    India imports 75% of its oil needs and accounts for 3.5% of global consumption. It will become the third largest oil importer after the US and China before 2025, with energy demands expected to almost double by 2030, according to the International Energy Agency.
     
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  17. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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  18. NSG_Blackcats

    NSG_Blackcats Member of The Month OCTOBER 2009 Senior Member

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    Reliance finds more gas in KG basin​


    Indian energy major Reliance Industries has found natural gas in four more areas in its field off the country's east coast, two sources with knowledge of the matter said on Friday.
    The company has informed the Directorate General of Hydrocarbons about the discoveries in the Krishna Godavari (KG) basin, and has sought permission from the regulator to further develop the fields, said the sources, who declined to be named as they were not authorised to speak with the media.

    Source
     
  19. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    http://www.dnaindia.com/money/report_reliance-industries-buys-21pct-of-us-shale-gas-field_1369534

    Reliance Industries buys 21% of US shale gas field

    New Delhi: After letting The Netherlands-based LyondellBasell and Canada-based Value Creation slip through its fingers, Reliance Industries (RIL) managed to take a 40% stake in a section of a shale gas field in north-eastern United States in a $1.7 billion deal.

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    Reliance finds more gas in Krishna Godavari basin

    RIL will pay $340 million (Rs 1,600 crore) upfront to US-based Atlas Energy and make follow on payments totalling $1.36 billion (Rs 6,400 crore) over the next five to seven years.

    RIL will have preferential rights to buy about 280,000 of Appalachian region acres outside the joint venture at $8,000 per acre should Atlas decide to sell them.

    The Marcellus region accounts for around 52% of Atlas’ total holding of 580,000 acres in Appalachia.

    The Appalachian holdings itself accounts for about half of Atlas’ total proven gas reserves of 1 trillion cubic feet (tcf).

    The whole of Appalachian region produced an average of 1.28 million cubic metres (mmsmd) of gas per day during the quarter ended December, according to Atlas’ quarterly update in February.

    However, Atlas also clarified that all of the 300,000 acres transferred to the joint venture with RIL is undeveloped.

    Neither firm clarified the extent of proven reserves in the transferred area, but RIL said the region under the joint venture has a “net resource potential” of 13.3 trillion cubic feet.

    For comparison, RIL’s KG D-6 block has a production of around 60 MMSCMD, proven reserves of around 11 trillion cubic feet and potential reserves of around 37 trillion cubic feet.

    Atlas said the two companies have agreed to drill 45 more wells in 2010, 108 in 2011, 178 in 2012, and 300 in 2013 and 2014.
    About 85% of the expense for this will be borne by RIL as part of the staggered payment.

    “This transaction will enable us to accelerate sharply our development of the Marcellus. As a result of this joint venture, we anticipate creating a significant number of new, well-payingPennsylvania jobs,” Atlas CEO and chairman Edward Cohen said.
    Shale gas occupies the same place in the US as coal bed methane or coal seam gas does in India. Found under shale rock layers, the gas contributes more than 5% of the US domestic gas supply and is expected to increase its share in the coming years.

    Like coal fields, shale rock deposits too became a commercially viable source of natural gas only in the last 5-10 years when natural gas prices shot through the roof.

    Gas is extracted from shale formations through a process known as hydraulic fracturing in which millions of gallons of chemically treated water and sand are forced into wells to crack rock and allow gas to flow.

    Most wells are drilled horizontally to expose thousands of feet of rock.

    Shale gas will account for 50% of US supply by 2035, up from the current 5-10%.

    The cost of finding and developing the field was around $1.21 per 1000 cubic feet, according to Atlas’ December quarter update. However, high gas prices prices in the range of $3-7 per 1000 cubic feet or MMBtu make the operation viable.

    The only other option for United States, which depends on gas for 25% of its primary energy needs, is liquefied natural gas, which has costs around $2-3 per MMBtu in terms of liquefaction, shipping and re-gasification costs.

    Both RIL and Atlas said there is more room for the joint venture to grow and RIL may invest as much as $5 billion over the next ten years as the area can support an additional 2,000 wells even after the first 1,000 wells are dug under the five-year programme. The joint venture will have the option of expanding its holding to adjoining areas on similar terms while Altas will charge $8,000 per acre for areas further afield.

    The venture will “provide Reliance with an entirely new platform from which to grow its exploration and production business while simultaneously enhancing its ability to operate unconventional projects in the future,” P M S Prasad, executive director, RIL, said.
    The transaction will be closed in April, the companies said.
     
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  20. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    http://www.blonnet.com/2010/04/10/stories/2010041053060100.htm

    Coaxing gas out of porous rock


    Natural gas is the best known and exploited gaseous hydrocarbon, but these burnable gases occur in many forms.

    Most Indians are now familiar with coal-bed methane — methane that has got fixed (“adsorbed”) into the pores of coals. You may think of shale gas as ‘shale-bed methane'. Shale is a kind of sedimentary rock, or porous rock formed by layers of sediments pressed by the weight of the earth above. Oil or gas may sometimes occupy the pores, and that is shale oil or shale gas.

    Shale gas, like coal-bed methane and gas hydrates (frozen methane found at sea bed or below permafrost), comes under the head ‘unconventional gas'.

    Commercial interest in unconventional gas (or oil) goes up when oil prices shoot. Oil engineers have been able to solve the technological challenge of coaxing the gas out of the shale by a technique called hydro-fracturing, or cracking shale by flooding water at high pressures. Thus, we have today the ‘shale-gas boom', led by the US. China is said to be targeting 30 billion cu m of shale gas annually, equivalent to half the country's demand.



    As in the case of coal-bed methane and gas hydrates, the potential is there in India.

    “The shales in Gondwana and Cambay Basin have been field experimented for evaluating the shale gas potential. Initial results are found encouraging and at par with US producing shales,” says Mr Ravi Mishra of ONGC, Dehra Dun. The shale gas exploration in India is relatively new but rapidly gaining attention of the industry players. Hence, it has opened vast geographical frontiers for shale gas exploration.

    The real challenge in exploitation of shale gas lies in drilling of customised multilateral wells and completing it. “However the vast resource base coupled with rise in demand for gas and appropriate market prices make the time right to explore and exploit this resource on equal priority,” says Mr Ravi Mishra.
     
  21. Vinod2070

    Vinod2070 मध्यस्थ Stars and Ambassadors

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    I think this is a smart move that will give Reliance exposure to operating such ventures in India in future. This will be the energy source of the future and for once India will not be lacking in this resource.
     
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