Discussion in 'China' started by Indx TechStyle, Jul 17, 2016.
Updates related to Chinese Space Program here please.
@Kyubi @amoy @Martian @no smoking @pmaitra
A brief intro into what chinese space program is
DFFC (Duoyongtu Feichuan Fanhui Cang) A Chinese manned space capsule
... and DFFC is the subscale model of the intended space capsule .
It is supposed to be outfitted with basic systems like a navigation system, heat shield, parachutes and a communications system capable of transmitting through the plasma occurring during the hypersonic re-entry sequence.
This new subscale manned capsule was launched on the new family of Launch vehicles CZ-7 .
About YF100 & YF115 Engines
Top YF100 , Bottom YF115
CAALPT LOx/Kerosene rocket engine, for CZ-7 Next Generation Launch Vehicle series. Engine can be throttled to 65% of rated thrust. Firing tests began in 2005. First flight 2016.
AKA: YF-120; YF-120t. Status: Operational 2016. Date: 2016. Thrust: 1,339.48 kN (301,127 lbf). Specific impulse: 335 s. Specific impulse sea level: 300 s.
Said to have been developed with Russian assistance and has turbomachinery design features in common with the Glushko RD-170/-180/-190 series. However the Russians have no thrust chamber in this thrust category and therefore the engine represents an entirely new design using all-indigenous components. Turbopump-fed, built in one- and two-axis gimbaled versions. Oxygen bled from engine is used to pressurize oxygen tank; helium to pressurize kerosene tank. The engine can be throttled to 65% of rated thrust. Firing tests began in 2003 and were to be completed by early 2006. Instead there were delays and the first 300-second full-duration firing test did not occur until 8 November 2005. The engine was certified by the government in 2012. First launch, originally expected in 2008, did not occur until 2016.
Throttled thrust(vac): 871.000 kN (195,808 lbf). Thrust (sl): 1,199.190 kN (269,500 lbf).Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 2.7.
Development of the engine began in the 2000s, along with its sibling, the smaller YF-115, which would power the LM-6 and LM-7 upper stages. Testing was directed by the China National Space Administration (CNSA) commencing in 2005. Development works are mainly carried out by the Xi'an Aerospace Propulsion Institute. The engine had its first 300 seconds test fire on November 2007.
A high efficiency/high thrust environmentally-friendly rocket engine was always an objective within Programme 863. But Chinese industry was not mature enough to produce such a rocket until they obtained examples (and probably documentation) of the Russian RD-120 in the early 1990s.It was the first Chinese rocket engine to adopt the staged-combustion cycle and the most powerful to date. During July 2012 the engine fired for 200 seconds generating 120 t (260,000 lb) of thrust. On May 28, 2012, the National Defense Science and Industry Bureau certified the engine.
The engine was planned to be used on the first stage of the Chinese government's next generation of launch vehicles, the Long March 5, the Long March 6 and the Long March 7.
The YF-100 was a pump-fed oxidizer rich staged combustion rocket engine. It had adjustable thrust and variable mixture ratio. Its preburner burned all the LOX mass flow with a bit of kerosene to generate hot gas that powered the single turbine. The turbopump was a single-shaft design, with a single-stage oxygen pump and a dual-stage kerosene pump driven by the same turbine. It also had two low pressure pumps that prevented cavitation. This arrangement was very similar to the RD-170 design. The engine had a heat exchanger to heat oxygen gas for LOX tank pressurization, and also supplied high pressure kerosene as hydraulic fluid for the thrust vector control actuators. The development required ten years of research, requiring the mastering of 70 key technologies, the development of 50 new materials and the construction of 61 sets of engines with a combined total of more than 40,000 seconds of ignition time by 2013.
China developing water cycle observation satellite
China will launch a Water Cycle Observation Mission (WCOM) satellite around 2020, to help in forecasting hydrological events including flood and drought.
As the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGRSS) 2016 kicked off in Beijing Monday, China announced its plans for the WCOM satellite, the first geoscientific satellite to provide integrated observation of key elements of the global water cycle.
The WCOM was initiated jointly by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth and the National Space Science Center with the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS).
The CAS has completed key research and tests of the satellite's payload in anticipation of further development.
"This year's floods in southern China are an example of how changes in water cycle have a direct impact on our lives," said Shi Jiancheng, chief WCOM scientist.
Understanding the distribution characteristics and changing patterns of the water cycle and forecasting them are frontier scientific issues for us, Shi added.
The WCOM will provide unprecedented, accurate observations through simultaneous monitoring of key water cycle elements, such as soil humidity, snow/water equivalents, surface ice and sea water salinity, Shi said.
It will play an important role in flood prevention, drought relief, agriculture, water resource management as well as food and environmental security, he said.
The CAS will cooperate with U.S. and European research teams to initiate a satellite constellation based on the WCOM, aiming to form a worldwide water cycle observation network.
Also at the IGRSS meeting, progress was made in major collaborative research projects, including the China-France Oceanography Satellite (CFOSAT) and the Dragon Program.
The CFOSAT, the first joint satellite development between China and France, scheduled for launch in 2018, is dedicated to ocean wind and wave observation. A prototype model is complete and the actual CFOSAT prototype is being developed.
The CFOSAT will carry two payloads: a wave spectrometer from France and a wind scatterometer by China. It will be the first time for both devices to be used for remote-sensing purpose on satellite.
China is responsible for the satellite design, manufacture and launch.
The Dragon Program is a cooperation between the Ministry of Science and Technology and the European Space Agency. The first phase of the project commenced in 2004 and was completed in 2008.
Scheduled to be completed in 2020, the fourth phase of the Dragon Program consists of 27 projects covering eight fields including agriculture, carbon dioxide monitoring and disaster mitigation.
China launches 2nd Shijian-16 satellite
China conducted another orbital launch, this time orbiting the Shijian-16 (#2) satellite via the Long March-4B (Chang Zheng-4B) rocket. The launch took place from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center at 03:21 UTC on Wednesday, lifting off from the 603 platform at Launch Complex 43.
Little information was available about the incoming launch, with NOTAM’s only appearing a few days before the event. However, this only hinted at the launch of a bird to be placed in a 75 degree orbit.
Previous launch to use this inclination from Jiuquan included the launch of Shijian-16 on October 25, 2013.
Following launch, Chinese State media did confirm the satellite was the second Shijian-16 satellite, to be used for “space environment measurements and technology testing”.
NORAD reported an object orbiting in a 595 x 616 km x 75.01 degree orbit, similar to the previous Shijian-16.
The Shijian-16 spacecraft are technology satellites used to probe the space environment, radiation and its effects, record space physical environment parameters, and conduct other related space experiments.
The Long March-4B launch vehicle:
The feasibility study of the Chang Zheng-4 began in 1982 based on the Feng Bao-1 launch vehicle. Engineering development was initiated in the following year. Initially, the Chang Zheng-4 served as a back-up launch vehicle for Chang Zheng-3 to launch China’s communications satellites.
After the successful launch of China’s first DFH-2 communications satellites by Chang Zheng-3, the main mission of the Chang Zheng-4 was shifted to launch sun-synchronous orbit meteorological satellites. On the other hand, the Chang Zheng-4B launch vehicle was first introduced in May 1999 and also developed by the Shanghai Academy of Space Flight Technology (SAST), based on the Chang Zheng-4.
The rocket is capable of launching a 2,800 kg satellite into low Earth orbit, developing 2,971 kN at launch. With a mass of 248,470 kg, the CZ-4B is 45.58 meters long and has a diameter of 3.35 meters.
SAST began to develop the Chang Zheng-4B in February 1989. Originally, it was scheduled to be commissioned in 1997, but the first launch didn’t take place until late 1999. The modifications introduced on the Chang Zheng-4B included a larger satellite fairing and the replacement of the original mechanical-electrical control on the Chang Zheng-4 with an electronic control.
Other modifications were an improved telemetry, tracking, control, and self-destruction systems with smaller size and lighter weight; a revised nozzle design in the second stage for better high-altitude performance; a propellant management system for the second stage to reduce the spare propellant amount, thus increasing the vehicle’s payload capability and a propellant jettison system on the third-stage.
The first stage has a 24.65 meter length with a 3.35 meter diameter, consuming 183,340 kg of N2O4/UDMH (gross mass of first stage is 193.330 kg). The vehicle is equipped with a YF-21B engine capable of a ground thrust of 2,971 kN and a ground specific impulse of 2,550 Ns/kg. The second stage has a 10.40 meter length with a 3.35 meter diameter and 38,326 kg, consuming 35,374 kg of N2O4/UDMH.
The vehicle is equipped with a YF-22B main engine capable of a vacuum thrust of 742 kN and four YF-23B vernier engines with a vacuum thrust of 47.1 kN (specific impulses of 2,922 Ns/kg and 2,834 Ns/kg, respectively).
The third stage has a 4.93 meter length with a 2.9 meter diameter, consuming 12,814 kg of N2O4/UDMH. Having a gross mass of 14,560 kg, it is equipped with a YF-40 engine capable of a vacuum thrust of 100.8 kN and a specific impulse in vacuum of 2,971 Ns/kg.
The Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, in Ejin-Banner – a county in Alashan League of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region – was the first Chinese satellite launch center and is also known as the Shuang Cheng Tze launch center. The site includes a Technical Centre, two Launch Complexes, Mission Command and Control Centre, Launch Control Centre, propellant fuelling systems, tracking and communication systems, gas supply systems, weather forecast systems, and logistic support systems.
Jiuquan was originally used to launch scientific and recoverable satellites into medium or low earth orbits at high inclinations. It is also the place from where all the Chinese manned missions are launched.
The LC-43 launch complex, also known by South Launch Site (SLS) is equipped with two launch pads: 921 and 603. Launch pad 921 is used for the manned program for the launch of the Chang Zheng-2F launch vehicle (Shenzhou and Tiangong). The 603 launch pad is used for unmanned orbital launches by the Chang Zheng-2C, Chang Zheng-2D and Chang Zheng-4C launch vehicles.
Other launch zones at the launch site are used for launching the Kuaizhou and the CZ-11 Chang Zheng-11 solid propellant launch vehicles.
Info on WCOM Satellite -->>
Worldwide Water Scrutiny Could Start With China's WCOM Satellite
Planning to handle hydrological events, such as droughts and floods, China is planning the first launch of a geoscientific satellite no later than 2020 to observe key elements of the Earth's water cycles.
Known as the Water Cycle Observation Mission, or WCOM, this strategy was unveiled by the nation in Beijing at the Remote Sensing Symposium 2016, with the satellite development planned jointly by Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth as well as the National Space Science Center along with the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The latter organization has finished their a number of crucial research and other tests of the satellite payload.
Accurate observations through the simultaneous monitoring of key water cycle elements, such as agriculture, drought relief, flood prevention, food and environmental safety and water resource management will be possible with WCOM. Cooperation is expected with US and European teams to put a satellite constellation into orbit based on the WCOM to build a worldwide water cycle observation network.
There will be two payloads aboard the satellite, those being a French wave spectrometer and a Chinese wind scatterometer. These instruments will actually be the first occasion such will be implemented on board a satellite for remote sensing operations.
The Chief Scientist at WCOM reported that the floods that affected southern China this year are but one example of how alterations in water cycle have a direct impact on lives and that understanding the distribution characteristics and the changing patters of water cycles, then forecasting them, happen to be crucial scientific issue for the nation.
China announces success in technology to refuel satellites in orbit
China has successfully completed the in-space refuel of orbital satellites following last week's launch of a new generation carrier rocket, the National University of Defense Technology announced on Thursday.
Similar to air refueling for planes, the process refuels a satellite in orbit in a microgravity environment and will extend a satellite's functional life and boost its maneuver capabilities considerably.
Developed by the university, Tianyuan-1 is the country's first in-space refueling system for orbital satellites. It was launched into orbit aboard the Long March-7 carrier rocket on Saturday.
A series of core independent processes were tested and verified after the launch, with data and videos recording the full process sent back to earth, the university said in a statement.
"The injection process was stable, and measurement and control were precise," it said, adding that the test proved that Tianyuan-1 met design requirements.
Though an area of great interest, the process is complicated and only a few countries have began experiments.
Well, I guess China has target to conduct record 20+ missions this year. We'll get all updates from @Martian likely.
SMALL SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE - Naga L
The China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT) is developing a smallsat launch vehicle set to fly in about two years, according to a presentation made on Wednesday during the International Astronautical Conference in Jerusalem.
Mark Schaffer (@mgschaffer), a senior Senior Aerospace Engineer at SpaceWorks Enterprises, provided the following details via Twitter on a presentation by Haoliang Yang of the Beijing Institute of Astronautical Systems Engineering.
Name: Naga-L or Naga-1 (name differed between paper, presentation)
First Flight: ~2 years (end of 2017)
Payloads: 1,550kg to 400km LEO @ 41deg, 820kg to 500km SSO, 620kg to 700km SSO
Launch Options: China (@ 41deg), Indonesia & Tanzania for equatorial, Sweden for SSO
Technical Details: 2 stage LOX/RP + LOX/LH2, 100t GLOW, 30m length
Cost: Approximately $10 million per flight.
China to launch 14 new meteorological satellites before 2025
China will put 14 more meteorological satellites into orbit over the next decade, according to a conference on Monday.
By 2025, China plans to launch one Fengyun-II satellite, four Fengyun-IIIs, three Fengyun-IVs and another 6 for multiple meteorological purposes, Wu Yanhua, deputy head of the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defence, said at a seminar on Fengyun satellite development.
Fengyun satellites are a series of remote-sensing meteorological satellites developed by China. The Fengyun series is an important part of the earth observation satellite system.
China has launched 14 Fengyun satellites since 1988, with seven still in orbit as part of the World Meteorological Organization network.
A year old article but still quite interesting to see China's future plans moving rapidly ahead.
China Outlines New Rockets, Space Station and Moon Plans
Rocket builders in China are slated to augment their Long March family of boosters this year and in 2016. According to Chinese news services, the country will soon fly their Long March 6 – likely in the middle of this year.
Additionally, China's Long March 7 and Long March 5 rockets are to make their first flights next year, according to Tan Yonghua, president of China's Academy of Aerospace Propulsion Technology, as reported in the state-run China Daily.
The academy is China's major player in developing liquid-fuelled rocket engines. It forms part of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corp, the major contractor for the country's space activities.
New liquid engine
The Long March 6 rocket will utilize a newly developed 120 ton thrust engine. That booster is a high-speed response launch vehicle capable of placing a payload of about 1 metric ton into a sun-synchronous orbit at a height of 700 kilometers.
Tan said that the new engine has been under development by the academy since 2000 and makes use of liquid oxygen and kerosene as its propellants – billed by China as more "eco-friendly" than current engines.
With the new engine, the Long March 5, Tan said, will have a payload capacity of 25 metric tons for low-Earth orbits, or 14 tons for geostationary transfer orbits.
The Long March 7 will be capable of sending payloads of 13.5 tons into low Earth orbits and of 5.5 tons into sun-synchronous orbits, Tan said.
The Long March 2 and Long March 3 rocket families, the backbones of Chinese launches, are headed for retirement within the next 10 years, with the Long March 7 and Long March 5 becoming the pillars of China's space program, Tao Gang, general manager of the Tianjin Long March Launch Vehicle Manufacturing Company Ltd. told China Daily late last year.
Space station elements
Next year's maiden flight of the Long March 5, a heavy-lift rocket, is the booster that is to place the Tiangong 2 space laboratory into Earth orbit in 2016 for visits by Chinese space crews.
The Tiangong space labs are viewed as building blocks to gain technical and operational expertise to construct a larger space station in the 2020s.
Enterprising moon mission?
In other Chinese space news, the state-run Xinhua news agency reported today that the Chang'e 4 lunar probe is to be launched before 2020.
According to the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense (SASTIND) Chang'e 4 "will pilot a program that uses private investment from individuals and enterprises for the first time, a move aimed at accelerating aerospace innovation, cutting production costs and promoting military-civilian relationships."
Xinhua reports that Chang'e 4 — a backup probe for Chang'e 3 that put lander and rover on the moon in 2013 — will be given a "new mission" that will be decided after further study.
Q&A: China lunar chief plots voyage to far side of moon
Q: Is Chang'e-3 still making observations?
Q: What is the schedule for Chang'e-5? Is the landing site on the moon's Ocean of Storms?
Q: Regarding Chang'e-4, is it correct that there will be a communications relay satellite launched in June 2018, and then the Chang'e-4 spacecraft itself with its rover launched before the end of 2018?
Q: Chang'e-4 was developed as a backup to Chang'e-3, with a lander and rover. Will the scientific instruments be similar?
Q: Will there be a Chang'e-6?
Q: Which has been more important: advancing your technological capabilities or the scientific objectives?
I saw your request. Why do you want this to be sticky? It is not about the Indian Space Programme.
It's about Chinese space program in Chinese section. Forum has very few foreign members. That's why I'm trying to create discussion platform for all.
For sticky, now I think with fe replies, it must not be sticky.
Let me make it cross ten pages and few Chinese members active on it.
Ok. I have neither approved or rejected your request. Let's see what others say. I do agree - we need more foreign members.
Yes it would be better to have members from other nationalities to have their opinion/information regarding CNSA .. in the mean time I'll continue to source quality Information and post it here such that it will be platform for further discussions..
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Long March 7 rocket, a new Chinese carrier rocket model, is seen at launch pad in Wenchang, Hainan province, China (June 22, 2016).
Image Credit: China Daily via REUTERS
China's Unique Space Ambitions
China’s space program is venturing beyond simply seeking prestige and status.
China’s SBSP Program
Lunar and Asteroid Mining
China’s Space Station
An informative article indeed.
But as far as India is concerned, I don't think we need to try such ventures and and must focus on exploration mainly till we turn into a second world country in terms of development like Brazil or China and our energy consumption increases (and total requirement would be high because of population, like China is facing today).
We must focus on our own criteria for at least a decade more.
china is going for orbital solar station becasue they probably have used almost all of thier energy resource .nothing willl be left for tem by 2030-35.. so its their compulsion.
We have still to harness our available energy resource-like Thorium..
i dont think ISRO has anything in mind for asteroid mining but one thing is sure moon mining is on our mind and thats the purpose of chndrayaan future missions..
one thing we need ASAP , a heavy lift rocket.. lifting capability is the first limitation in space exploration .first clear this hurdle.. GVT should now prioritize HLV,ULV rockets.. make it a reality by 2022..
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