China-India: Revisiting the ‘Water Wars’ Narrative

Discussion in 'China' started by rockey 71, Jul 31, 2015.

  1. rockey 71

    rockey 71 Regular Member

    Joined:
    Mar 5, 2015
    Messages:
    995
    Likes Received:
    321
    http://thediplomat.com/2015/06/china-india-revisiting-the-water-wars-narrative/

    China-India: Revisiting the ‘Water Wars’ Narrative

    The “water wars” narrative in the context of the Brahmaputra River is premature and unhelpful.

    ByZhang Hongzhou
    June 30, 2015

    With China’s late-2014 completion of the Zangmu dam, the largest hydropower dam on the Brahmaputra River (known in Tibet as the Yarlung Tsangpo River), many Indian and international security experts have beenwarning of the coming of “water wars” between the two countries.

    Those who worry about this scenario have three major arguments. First, China will face serious water shortages in the future and so will begin to divert water flow from the Brahmaputra River to its dry north. Second, this would be catastrophic for downstream countries. Third, China’s unwillingness to sign any binding agreement with downstream countries over trans-boundary rivers is evidence of Beijing’s insistence on absolute sovereignty over water, to the significant detriment of downstream countries.

    While water issues could well emerge as one of the major threats to Sino-India relations given rapidly rising demand, competing water usage, and threats from climate change, the water wars narrative still seems to be premature.

    No Plans to Divert Water

    The supporters of the “water war” narratives believe that China already has a plan to divert the Brahmaputra River – more specifically, the western route of China’s South North Water Diversion Projects. This is, however, a misperception. The Grand Western Water Diversion Plan (GWWD), which originated from the Shuotian Canalideaproposed by Chinese water expert Guo Kai, intends to divert water from the upstream sections of six rivers in southwest China, including upstream Mekong, the Brahmaputra River, and the Salween, to the dry areas of northern China. In contrast, the officially approved western route of the South-North Water Diversion (SNWD) project is about linking the headwaters of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers across the high-altitude Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. In 2011, at a press conference, China’s vice minister of Ministry of Water Resources confirmed that China had no plan to divert the waters of the Brahmaputra.

    In recent years, China has spent trillions of yuan damming its rivers and diverting water flows by digging grand canals. This has led to worry that in the future China may eventually proceed with this grand plan and start diverting waters from Brahmaputra River to China’s dry Northern provinces. While India’s concern is understandable, the evidence suggests that it is very unlikely that China will divert waters from the Brahmaputra.

    First, despite the fact that a few scholars and some officials, particularly from the military, have expressed support for the GWWDP, the mainstream scientific community has been very much opposed to the plan and the Chinese authorities have never endorsed it. In 2000, Chinese academician and formal minster of water resources Qian Zhengying as well as renowned water expert and academician Zhang Guangdou invited 43 academicians and 300 experts to study the GWWDP. Later, Qian and others submitted their report to the State Council and other relevant departments. The main message of the report is that the GWWDP is not technically feasible in the foreseeable future, and given China’s development trajectory, it is neither practical nor necessary.

    China’s policymakers eventually decided to halt further discussion about the GWWDP and approved a less radical proposal that would link the upstream Yangtze and Yellow rivers. This was subsequently known as the western route of the SNWD Projects. In 2005, the bookCan Tibet’s Water Save China, authored by Li Ling, drew renewed attention from the public, scholars, and officials on the GWWDP. However, in 2006, China’s then Minister of Water Resources Wang Shucheng condemned the plan in a speech at Hong Kong University, saying: “GWWDP is not needed, is not feasible, and is not scientific.” Wang reiterated his position on the GWWDP in 2011. In recent years, with attention mostly focused on the feasibility of the western route of the SNWD project, there has been little interest in the GWWDP.

    Second, while both the eastern route and central route were completed, the western route of the SNWD projects has been suspended since 2006 for a number a reasons. Economic considerations are perhaps the key driver of the strong resistance to the western route. Many experts argued that the total construction cost would be too high and it does not make economic sense to use the diverted water as it will be too expensive for consumers. Social and environmental concerns are another important factor. As the Yangtze and Yellow rivers are two completely different ecosystems, linking them could have disastrous environmental and ecological impacts. In addition, conflicts of interest among different provinces makes construction of a western route even more difficult. Upper stream provinces, particularly Sichuan, are strongly opposed to the western route as the water diversion would have severe ramifications for their own economies. Therefore, given that the GWWDP is a much bigger proposal, its building cost, economic, social, and environmental impacts will be even higher.

    Third, the Chinese government has become more aware of the futility of water diversion projects to meet China’s water shortages as there has been increasing criticism from scholars on theThree Gorges DamandSNWDprojects, as well as growing public resistance to major water infrastructure projects accompanying the rapid rise of civil society in China and public awareness of the potential negative impacts of these mega projects on the environment. The Chinese government is placing more emphasis on the potential environmental impacts as well as the sustainability of mega water projects. In a press conference in March 2015, when asked about the progress of the western route, Jiao Yong, vice minister of China’s Ministry of Water resources, said that while the government is still studying the western route, top priority will be given to water conservation and environmental protection. Moreover, with the declining costs of water recycling and desalination technologies, the western route alone – not to mention the massive GWWDP – could prove economically unattractive.

    Inflated Impacts

    In estimating the potential impact of the mythical Chinese plan to divert the Brahmaputra River based on river basin data, it is very easy to conclude that the repercussions would be huge, given that 50 percent of the river basin of Brahmaputra is in Chinese territory. However, river basin data can be very deceptive as they are not equivalent to water discharge data, which are a better indicator of the potential impact of water projects along the river.

    While China has the largest spatial share of the basin at over 50 percent, it generates only22-30percent of the total basin discharge. This is attributable to Tibet’s cold desert climate and the very low annual rainfall. In contrast, the Indian section of the basin, covering 34.2 percent of the basin area, contributes 39 percent of the total discharge. Equally significant is the contribution from Bhutan, which accounts for 6.7 percent of the total basin area but generates 21 percent of the system output. Isabel Hilton, editor ofChinadialogue, hasarguedthat only 14 percent of the Brahmaputra’s flow is generated in China; the other 86 percent comes from India. Given the existence of major border disputes in Southern Tibet (Arunachal Pradesh in India), which also forms part of the river basin for Brahmaputra River, as well as the huge difference in water flow between dry and monsoon seasons, it is very difficult to have a precise and actuate measurement of China’s contribution to total water flows in the Brahmaputra River. Nonetheless, it is generally agreed that China’s contribution is much smaller compared to its share of the river basin.

    Next, even if the radical GWWDP were implemented, not all of the water of the Brahmaputra River generated in Chinese territory would be diverted. In fact, the project would divert only around 20 percent of the total water flows of six rivers in southwestern China, including the Mekong, Brahmaputra River, and Salween. As for the Brahmaputra River, even to discard the proposed water diversion volume, at maximum, around 50 percent of the water discharged will be affected as the diversion plan would start roughly in the middle part of the Brahmaputra River in Chinese borders. This is to say, even when 100 percent of the water at that point was diverted-an impossible scenario, it would only affect around 50 percent of the total water discharge originated from China.

    Finally, the utilization rate of water in Brahmaputra River is very low. Professor Pranab Kumar Raestimatesthat the utilizable water of the Brahmaputra system is a mere four percent of the total discharge, a reflection of the very high speed of the discharge and its sheer volume. This is to say, 10 percent or 20 percent reduction in the water flows of Brahmaputra River would be unlikely to cause water scarcity of any nature in the Indian part of the basin.

    China: No Water Hegemon

    The perception that downstream countries have of China as an uncooperative water hegemon is largely attributed to China’s passive role in international water governance and its reluctance to cooperate with them. To be sure, China needs to be more engaged with its neighbors on trans-boundary river issues, but it is no water hegemon, for several reasons.

    To begin with, owning to the low level of integration and deep-seated mistrust in the region, the degree of cooperation on the Asia’s major trans-boundary rivers remain very limited compared with other parts of the world. In Central Asia, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan have paid little heed to the water needs of downstream countries, including Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Kazakhstan, in their hydropower development projects. In Southeast Asia, even with the creation of the Mekong River Commission, Laos decided to move forward with theDon Sahong and Xayaburi damsdespite objections from downstream countries. In South Asia, while reports about China’s plan to divert the Brahmaputra turn out to be illusory, India in fact has unilaterally diverted or withdrawn water from its trans-boundary rivers. In fact, India has long been criticized for paying scant regard to the concerns of lower riparian countries, such as Bangladesh, in diverting waters from and building dams in trans-boundary rivers despite the existence of water treaties.

    China did vote against the 1997 United Nations Watercourses Convention (UNWC), but it is worth pointing out that India has not ratified the agreement either; in fact, in Asia, onlyUzbekistan and Vietnamhave ratified the UNWC. While they are many factors behind Beijing’s reluctance to participate in regional and international water governance, its decision to vote against the 1997 UNWC is not because of its insistence on the doctrine of absolute territorial integrity. In contrast,accordingto Professor Patricia Wouters, China in fact embraces the fundamental principles of UNWC – equal and reasonable use and obligation not to cause significant trans-boundary arms.

    What also needs to be noted is that in recent years, China has been showing more willingness to cooperate with downstream countries on trans-boundary river issues. In Northeast Asia, China and Russia have a long history of water cooperation; they are bound by numerous bilateral agreements and a number of joint institutions. In recent years, their water-related cooperation has become increasingly active. In Central Asia, China has engaged in bilateral cooperation with Kazakhstan on a number of water-related issues. Their efforts to create an adequate legal and institutional framework have been relatively successful – there are several bilateral agreements and joint commissions. In April 2011, the two countries launched theChina-Kazakhstan Friendship Joint Water Diversion Projecton the Khorgos River, under which each side will be allotted 50 percent of the water diverted.

    In Southeast Asia, China is showing a greater willingness to reach out on issues related to the Mekong River and is gradually opening up to the Mekong River Commission as well. In December 2014, China’s vice minister of water resources, Jiao Yong, during a visit to the MRC secretariat, expressed China’s intention to continue and strengthen cooperation and emphasized that China would work with the MRC on a joint scientific study on water flow fluctuations in the Mekong-Lancang River, among other existing and upcoming activities.

    In South Asia, as far as the Brahmaputra River goes, it is certainly true that China and India have yet to establish an effective working mechanism to deal with the trans-boundary river issues. Nonetheless, since they signed a memorandum on Strengthening Cooperation on Trans-border Rivers in 2013, the two countries have been in sound communication through the mechanism of expert-level meetings. What should also be noted is that the key stumbling block to substantial cooperation between China and India on the Brahmaputra is the boundary disputes in Southern Tibet (Arunachal Pradesh in India)m since South Tibet forms a large part of the river basin. This makes any water sharing agreement impossible.

    Conclusion

    As Selina Ho from the National University of Singapore rightlypointed out, given divergent interests between central and local governments and among different ministries and departments, as well as fragmented and devolved power and authority in relation to the management of trans-boundary rivers, China does not have an independent trans-boundary river policy; instead, it manages its trans-boundary rivers as a subset of its broader relations with other riparian states. Therefore, as far as managing the Brahmaputra River is concerned, playing up a “water war” or China threat narrative is not helpful; worse, the real danger of such a narrative – as with other China threat theories – is that it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy, as it erodes the mutual trust that is desperately needed to improve Sino-Indian relations and encourages overreaction from both sides.

    Zhang Hongzhou is an Associate Research Fellow with the China Programme at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
     
  2.  
  3. amoy

    amoy Senior Member Senior Member

    Joined:
    Jan 17, 2010
    Messages:
    5,519
    Likes Received:
    1,544
    as what Chinese section contributes is but an insignificant portion to the Brahmaputra flow the dam and possible diversion would have only a small impact on the downstream Bangladesh.

    regrettably China and BD lack connectivity through Myanmar and NE. otherwise there could have been more interactions for mutual good.

    ~Tapa talks: Orange is the new black.~
     
  4. rockey 71

    rockey 71 Regular Member

    Joined:
    Mar 5, 2015
    Messages:
    995
    Likes Received:
    321

    The devastating impact on BD would be the reported Indian project to divert Brahmaputra towards arid central India.
     
  5. Abhijat

    Abhijat Regular Member

    Joined:
    Apr 17, 2014
    Messages:
    469
    Likes Received:
    350
    Location:
    Nothingness
    Stupid , read first.

    The river linking project in N.E are of :

    NEW DELHI: Moving forward with its grand plan of linking rivers across the country, the Centre on Monday announced that it will take up the task of connecting Manas-Sankosh-Teesta-Ganga in Assam, West Bengal and Bihar. The three states will soon be approached for their consent.


    So , do tell , where is the linkage with , Brahmaputra, or more so with it's subsidiaries.

    http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/...rivers-may-be-linked/articleshow/48062410.cms
     
    bose likes this.
  6. Abhijat

    Abhijat Regular Member

    Joined:
    Apr 17, 2014
    Messages:
    469
    Likes Received:
    350
    Location:
    Nothingness
    @rockey 71 , and remember one more thing boy,

    By, 2050(more-so) , due to global warming and rising sea-level, production of Rice will be heavily effected in Bangladesh. Due to which , your country(?) , may feel more repercussion , due to non-availability of suitable employment opportunity in the country.

    So , stop being a dickhead , and think practically,

    A strong friendship and co-operation between two countries, is the only way forward for successfully mitigating the effects of global warming.

    And, your attitude , is not helping at all.
     
  7. rockey 71

    rockey 71 Regular Member

    Joined:
    Mar 5, 2015
    Messages:
    995
    Likes Received:
    321
    Friendship cannot be a one way traffic. We have given you all you have been seeking. But you continue to dam/divert rivers flowing into BD.
     
  8. Abhijat

    Abhijat Regular Member

    Joined:
    Apr 17, 2014
    Messages:
    469
    Likes Received:
    350
    Location:
    Nothingness

    Please , list the name and location of dams you are talking about ?

    Also, yes , we admit that their was "big brother" approach by India under Congress regime, and due to this attitude , we had lost some goodwill of people in our neighboring countries.

    Having said that , the policy under BJP government in totally different, which is not based on "reciprocity" , but on regional network of chains, which will provide Economic benefit to people in the whole region.

    So, India and it's people have realized that , true Economic development of country can be achieved , only by fruitful co-operation with it's neighbor.

    To prove my point , read Foreign Trade Policy Statement 2015-2020 , and you will see the difference in approach between the two political groups.
     
  9. rockey 71

    rockey 71 Regular Member

    Joined:
    Mar 5, 2015
    Messages:
    995
    Likes Received:
    321
    Dhaka requests Delhi not to interlink Himalayan rivers
    July 23, 2015 12:32 am·0 Comments
    Mustafizur Rahman
    Bangladesh has requested India not to interlink the Himalayan rivers as it would adversely affect its ecology and agro-socio economy.
    On Monday, the ministry of water resources in a letter reminded the Indian water resources ministry that any diversion of the waters of the Himalayan rivers would go against India’s commitments to Bangladesh, said a senior official.
    He said that the letter was sent through the foreign office.
    On July 13,India unilaterally announced its controversial decision to interlink four trans-boundary rivers, the Manas, Sankosh, Teesta and Ganges.
    Water resources ministry secretary Zafar Ahmed Khan said India’s decision to interlink the Himalayan rivers as reported in the media was contradictory to India’s commitments to Bangladesh.
    He told New Age Wednesday that the water resources ministry requested India not to implement any project to interlink rivers as it would harm Bangladesh.
    Bangladesh-India Joint Rivers’ Commission member Mir Sajjad Hossain said India did not inform Bangladesh on the issue until now.
    The inter-linking of Himalayan rivers to divert the waters of Brahmaputra and the Ganges would increase intrusion of salinity in Bangladesh and adversely affect its ecology, he said.
    The Himalayan component of India’s controversial river interlinking plan envisages construction of storage reservoirs on the main Ganges and the Brahmaputra rivers and their principal tributaries in India and Nepal to use the flows for irrigation and hydro electricity generation.
    India planned the Himalayan component as a part of interlinking 30 rivers.
    India calls the other part of the interlinking project as its peninsular component.
    India’s interlinking the Himalayan rivers would leave Bangladesh dry, said water experts.
    On July 13, Indian state minister for water resources Sanwar Lal Jat announced the controversial decision at a meeting of the special committee for interlinking of rivers in Delhi, reported the Times of India.
    Updating the committee on the status of the projects for interlining rivers, he said, ‘I hope with all statutory clearance, we will be able to start the actual execution of work on the project by the end of this year.’
    Sanwar said that the government of India would soon approach Assam, West Bengal and Bihar to seek their consent for interlinking Manas, Sankosh, Teesta and the Ganges rivers.
    Water expert Ainun Nishat described the Indian decision as ‘unfortunate, unjust and unilateral.’
    It’s India’s political decision to interlink the trans boundary rivers, he said.
    The issue of sharing the waters of the common rivers should be resolved first politically, said Nishat, a former Brac University vice chancellor.
    Nishat said India should involve the other basin countries before interlinking Manas and Sankoshi.
    Manas is the largest river system of Bhutan and its basin countries also include China and India.
    The main tributaries of the Manas originate on the north of the Himalayas.
    The Manas flows through Bhutan for 272 km and then through Assam for 104km before it becomes a tributary of the Brahmaputra.
    Sankosh rises in northern Bhutan and empties into the Brahmaputra in Assam.
    In the Joint Declaration issued from the two capitals on June 7 marking the Indian prime minister’s visit to Bangladesh, Narendra Modi reiterated the earlier commitment that India would not take any unilateral decision on the Himalayan component of their River Interlinking Project which may affect Bangladesh’.
    The same declaration said, ‘Prime Minister Modi conveyed that deliberations are underway involving all
    stakeholders with regard to conclusion of the Interim Agreements on sharing of waters of Teesta and Feni as soon as possible’.
    It also said, ‘the two Prime Ministers recalled Article-2 of the Framework Agreement on Cooperation for Development of 2011 and reiterated their commitment to address the issue of water resources management of common rivers including water sharing, in a holistic manner through common basin management’.
    Bangladesh and India share 54 trans-boundary rivers.
    In 1996, Bangladesh and India signed an agreement stipulating sharing only the Ganges waters for 30 years.

    - See more at: http://newagebd.net/139896/dhaka-re...erlink-himalayan-rivers/#sthash.yX7zbOYY.dpuf
     
  10. rockey 71

    rockey 71 Regular Member

    Joined:
    Mar 5, 2015
    Messages:
    995
    Likes Received:
    321
    Have a look at the graphic explanation:


    [​IMG]
     
  11. rockey 71

    rockey 71 Regular Member

    Joined:
    Mar 5, 2015
    Messages:
    995
    Likes Received:
    321
    Arunachal, Bangladesh discuss management of Brahmaputra


    Arunachal, Bangladesh discuss management of Brahmaputra - The Hindu

    [​IMG]

    A file picture of The Siang or The Dihang as the mighty river Brahmaputra is called in Arunachal Pradesh. The hanging bridge is between Jidu and Tuting about 35 kms from the border with China. Photo: Special Arrangement.

    Arunachal Pradesh and Bangladesh have discussed several measures for better management of the Brahmaputra River for mutual benefit, official sources said on Saturday.

    Arunachal Pradesh Water Resources Development Minister Newlai Tingkhatra during a meeting in Itanagar on Friday with the visiting Bangladesh High Commissioner to India Tariq A Khan discussed ways to tackle the problem of siltation through river dredging and building embankments so that proper water depth was developed for inland water transportation.

    Mr. Khan advocated an integrated and holistic management of the flood problem in Arunachal Pradesh as well as the Brahmaputra basin, the sources said.

    He also said that Bangladesh was equally concerned and apprehensive over diversion of Brahmaputra’s water in China.

    “Arunachal Pradesh is the source of water for Brahmaputra basin and thus the primary stakeholder in all respects in the management of Brahmaputra in terms of hydropower generation and navigation,” he said.

    The meeting was also attended by Bangladesh Commerce Minister Md Habibur Rahman Khan.

    Later, the High Commissioner called on the Governor, General (Retd) J J Singh at Raj Bhawan and discussed various matters including inland waterways, Brahmaputra River project and areas of prospective trade and commercial activities.

    The Governor emphasised on cooperation for mutual benefits, energy (hydropower) sharing, people to people contact and opening up of more avenues for economic opportunities.

    Mr. Khan stressed on sub-regional cooperation. He appraised the Governor of the proposed meetings on Brahmaputra and Ganga basins with India, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Nepal, the sources said.
     
  12. rockey 71

    rockey 71 Regular Member

    Joined:
    Mar 5, 2015
    Messages:
    995
    Likes Received:
    321
    The Indian Rivers Inter-link is a proposed large-scale civil engineering project that aims to join the majority of India's rivers by canals and so reduce persistent water shortages in parts of India.

    History
    In 1972 the then Minister for Irrigation K. L. Rao proposed a 2640 kilometer long link between the Ganges and Kaveri rivers. In 1974 plans were proposed for the 'Garland canal'. In 1982 the National Water Development Agency was set up to carry out surveys of the links and prepare feasibility studies. The Garland Canal was proposed by Dinshaw J. Dastur, a consultant Engineer. Interlinking of rivers can be the permanent solution to Cauvery water dispute between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

    The Project
    The Inter-link would consist of two parts, a northern Himalayan River Development component and a southern Peninsular River Development component.

    Himalayan development
    [​IMG]
    Map of the Ganges (orange), Brahmaputra (violet), and Meghna (green) drainage basins.

    The northern component would consist of a series of dams built along the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers in India, Nepal and Bhutan for the purposes of storage. Canals would be built to transfer surplus water from the eastern tributaries of the Ganga to the west. The Brahmaputra and its tributaries would be linked with the Ganga and the Ganga with the Mahanadi river. This part of the project would provide additional irrigation for about 220,000 square kilometres and generate about 30 gigawatts of electricity. In theory it would provide extra flood control in the Ganga and Brahmaputra river basins. It could also provide excess water for the controversialFarakka Barrage which could be used to flush out the silt at the port of Kolkata.

    Peninsular development
    The main part of the project would send water from the eastern part of India to the south and west. The southern development project would consist of four main parts. First, the Mahanadi, Godavari. Krishna and Kaveri rivers would all be linked by canals. Extra water storage dams would be built along the course of these rivers. The purpose of this would be to transfer surplus water from the Mahanadi and Godavari rivers to the south of India. Second, those rivers that flow west to the north of Mumbai and the south of Tapi would be linked. Due to the irregular fluctuations in water levels in the region, as much storage capacity would be built as possible. The water would be used by the urban areas of Bombay and also to provide irrigation in the coastal areas of Maharashtra. Third the Ken and Chambal rivers would be linked in order to provide better water facilities for Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Finally a number of west-flowing rivers along the Western Ghats simply discharge into the Arabian Sea. As many of these as possible would be diverted for irrigation purposes. The Peninsular part of the project would provide additional irrigation to 130,000 square kilometres and generation an additional 4 gigawatts of power.

    Criticism

    • Critics also point to the enormous costs conservatively estimated at some US$ 140b which India cannot afford to spend.
    • The change in elevation (a minimum of 100 m, generally increases towards the south) from the plains of northern India to the Vindhya and Satpura ranges and the Deccan Plateau beyond them, pose a major challenge to the project; as the water would have to travel upwards in order to reach Maharashtra and southern India. The average water lift to cross the Vindhya mountains is 500 meters which needs 162 billion units of electricity (20% of total India's electricity consumption in the year 2012) to pump 100 billion cubic meters (bcm) in a year.
    • Interlinking Ganga river with peninsular rivers on large scale to use all the excess water is not feasible without constructing water storage reservoirs in Ganga basin to impound the flood waters available in 60 days flooding period in monsoon season. As it is not possible to construct 100 bcm capacity water reservoirs on the flat plains of thickly populated Ganga river basin in India, Nepal's consent is required to create the required water storage in its territory.
    • The project has also been criticized for not adequately studying the impact of the interlinking of waters to the unique bio diversity of the different riverine regions. While the water availability in the southern rivers may be increased, the main reason why such project is not being put to implementation is the apprehension of future water shortage in the Northern plains as a result of Climate change, whose effects are only now known.
    • Future river projects may well have to be water conserving and localized, to prevent feelings of injustice as well as prevent significant water losses during transporting it over long distances. The effects of climate change are becoming more pronounced by the year. Incidentally, earlier centuries had seen water storage tanks being built all over the Deccan and the south, vestiges of which still exist in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
    Innovative solutions
    Nearly 200 bcm water is joining the Arabian sea from west flowing rivers originating from the Western ghats located in Maharashtra, Karnataka & Kerala.[1] With 500 meters water lifting (maximum), 95% of this water can be pumped and used in all the water deficit rivers of Karnataka, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamilnadu and western Rajasthan (up to Sikar). Compared to bringing water from Ganga river located thousands of kilo meters away, this option is many times economical as it would supply water to all high lands and low lands of these states fully for three crops in a year.

    Sweet water reservoirs (100 bcm capacity) can be established in the shallow and relatively calm Arabian sea area by constructing sea dikes / bunds at a distance of ten kilo meters or up to the depth of 12 meters from the Arabian sea coast line. Water can be pumped from this artificial sweet water lagoon throughout the year for meeting agriculture, etc. needs. Also these deep sea facing dikes can be used as sea ports for large ships and top surface as coastal road & rail routs. These proposed dikes would be similar to the reclamation of North Sea area calledDelta Works in Netherlands. This man made lagoon would be nearly 1500 km long from Alang to Kanyakumari broken in to parts and interconnected by under water tunnels/ ducts (nearly 500 meters long) wherever existing ports and famous beach resorts are located.This lagoon is also interconnected to sea via locks for using the lagoon area for shipping, ship breaking, ship building, etc. purposes. The evaporation and seepage water losses from this man made lagoon would be less than the rainfall on the lagoon area.

    Andhra Pradesh can utilize all the surplus water of the Godavari river by transferring to its water deficit river basins by moderate lifts (less than 200 meters).

    There is no need of transferring Ganga river water to Peninsular India if the water resources available in these states are put to full use with the cooperation of all the states.

    Water can also be exported to Iran and Arabian Peninsula in exchange for crude oil and natural gas by extending the lagoon up to the Persian gulf. The water available in the Arabian sea coast of India is the nearest sweet water surplus region to the middle east countries. Cubic meter of sweet water can be supplied at approximate price of 0.5 US$ which is less than the price of producing sweet water from sea water by energy/electricity intensive desalination process. 200 cubic meters of water can be exchanged for one barrel of crude oil. Surplus waters of Sri Lanka can also be utilised by constructing similar man made lagoon around the coast line of Sri Lanka and interconnecting it with Indian system. Pakistan can also benefit by using some of the available sweet water in return for allowing the lagoon extension up to strait of Hormuz

    [​IMG]

    Himalayan Rivers Development Component

    The Himalayan component envisages construction of storage reservoirs on the main Ganga and Brahmaputra Rivers and their principal tributaries in India and Nepal so as to conserve monsoon flows for irrigation and hydro-power generation, besides flood control. Links will transfer surplus flows of the Kosi, Gandak and Ghagra to the west. In addition, the Brahmaputra-Ganga Link will augment dry-weather flow of the Ganga. Surplus flows that will become available on account of inter-linking of the Ganga and the Yamuna are proposed to be transferred to the drought prone areas of Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat. With this proposal about 14 Mha-m of additional water would be available from these river systems for irrigating an estimated 22 M-ha in the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin apart from Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat. It would also provide 1120 cumec to Calcutta Port and would provide navigation facility across the country. It will also provide flood moderation in the Ganga-Brahmaputra system. The Himalayan component will benefit not only India but also Nepal and Bangladesh. Fourteen links are proposed in the Himalayan component.


    Proposed Fourteen Links in the Himalayan Component

    1

    Kosi-Mechi

    2

    Kosi-Ghagra

    3

    Gandak-Ganga

    4

    Ghagra-Yamuna

    5

    Sarda-Yamuna

    6

    Yamuna-Rajasthan

    7

    Rajasthan-Sabarmati

    8

    Chunar-Sone Barrage

    9

    Sone Dam-South Tributaries of Ganga

    10

    Brahmaputra-Ganga (MSTG)

    11

    Brahmaputra-Ganga (JTF)(ALT)

    12

    Farakka-Sunderbans

    13

    Ganga-Damodar-Subernarekha

    14

    Subernarekha-Mahanadi



    In view of the ongoing dispute on the sharing of the Ganga water with Bangladesh, little details of this component are available. In broader terms, storages and links of the Himalayan component are of mammoth size. Due to size, topography and other reasons, construction and environmental problems might be enormous. Further, there appears to be some anomalies in the planning of this component. Since no additional storages are proposed on the Ganga and the Yamuna, their monsoon flows will continue to go to the Bay of Bengal while huge funds are to be spent to transfer water of Kosi, Ghagra, Gandak and Sarda to the West. The Satluj Yamuna link (which has not been made operational due to inter-state dispute) would transfer water from west to east, the proposed Sarda-Yamuna link towards east will flow in the opposite direction. Similarly, the Narmada canal transfers Narmada waters across Sabarmati towards North-West, the proposed Rajasthan-Sabarmati link will flow in the opposite direction towards South-east.


    Manas-Sankosh-Tista-Ganga (MSTG) Link

    Interlinking of the Brahmaputra with the Ganga, the Subernarekha and the Mahanadi is proposed to transfer waters of the Brahmaputra to benefit areas in Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand and Orissa. The Manas-Sankosh-Teesta-Ganga link is an important link in this component. This link envisages diversion of surplus water from Manas and Sankosh rivers in the Brahmaputra basin to augment flows of the Ganga upstream of Farakka. A link to the Peninsular component through Subernarekha and Mahanadi is also envisaged. For this link high dams are proposed at Manas and Sankosh with storage capacities of 8.75 BCM and 4.93 BCM, respectively (Singh 2002). A substantial part of the cost of these dams will be allocated to hydropower generation. The 114 km long link canal between Manas and Sankosh will have a discharge capacity of 3,725 m3/s. Beyond Sankosh and up to the Teesta barrage, the link canal is 137 km long with a capacity of 1,092 m3/s. Clearly, this will be a huge canal which will cross major drainages. The MSTG link passes through the narrow chicken neck in West Bengal (north of Bangladesh) and may have security aspects.


    Ghaghra-Yamuna Link

    The Ghagra-Yamuna link project is an inter-dependent link under the Himalayan Component of NPP. A study reveals that the Ghagra River (known as Karnali in Nepal) at the proposed the Chisapani dam site has surplus water. It is proposed that the existing requirement of water for the Sarda Sahayak Pariyojna, Saryu Nahar Pariyojna and various pump canals would be met from the proposed Gandak - Ganga link project and the water saved thereby could be diverted from the proposed Chisapani reservoir through the Ghagra - Yamuna link canal. The height of proposed dam is 175 m. A regulating dam downstream of the Chisapani dam is proposed with a full reservoir level of 200 m and a minimum drawdown level 193 m. The link canal shall join Yamuna River in Etawah district of Uttar Pradesh. The total length of the link canal would be about 417 km with its depth varying from 8 m in the head reach to 5 m in the tail reach and the width varying from 85.5 m in the head reach to 18 m towards the tail end.


    Sarda-Yamuna-Rajasthan-Sabarmati Link Canal

    This is a continuous link having a combination of three links, viz., the Sarda-Yamuna link, the Yamuna-Rajasthan link, and the Rajasthan-Sabarmati link. This link canal is planned to divert 17,906 MCM (14.52 MAF) water of Himalayan rivers. Its length will be 1,835 km out of which 75 km will be in Gujarat State. A total of 4 states, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat, are to be benefited by this link. About 1,627 MCM (1.32 MAF) water has been allocated to North Gujarat which is only 9% of the total divertible water at the canal head. A total 7.38 lakh ha area is to be irrigated by the Rajasthan-Sabarmati link, out of which 5.35 lakh ha in Rajasthan and 2.03 lakh ha in Gujarat.


    Yamuna-Rajasthan Link Canal Project

    The Yamuna-Rajasthan link proposal is an extension of the proposed Sarda–Yamuna Link beyond the Yamuna to provide irrigation to the drought prone areas of Haryana and Rajasthan. It envisages diversion of 8,657 Mm3 of water from the Sarda basin at Purnagiri. The Yamuna - Rajasthan link is to take off from the right bank of proposed Yamuna barrage and passes through the Karnal, Sonipat, Jind, Hisar and Bhiwani districts of Haryana and Churu, Hanumangarh, Ganganagar, Bikaner, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan and ends on the Jaisalmer-Hamira-Shri Mohangarh Road at a distance of 4.5 km from village Kanod towards Jaisalmer. The length of the link canal is 786 km, out of which 196 km lies in Haryana and the rest 590 km in Rajasthan. The design discharge at head and tail are 572 cumec and 344 cumec, respectively. The longitudinal slope of the canal is 1:20,000. The full supply depth and bed width of the canal at head are 7 m and 53 m, respectively. The Yamuna - Rajasthan link will provide an annual irrigation of 244,200 ha in the districts of Ganganagar, Bikaner, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer of Rajasthan.


    Rajasthan-Sabarmati Link Project

    The Rajasthan-Sabarmati link canal is an extension of the proposed Yamuna–Rajasthan Link. The link envisages a transfer of 5,924 Mm3 water available at the tail end of the Yamuna-Rajasthan link for drought prone areas of Rajasthan and Gujarat. The length of the canal is about 725 km out of which 650 km lies in Rajasthan and the rest 75 km in Gujarat. The design discharge at the head and the tail are 344 cumec and 60 cumec, respectively. The full supply depth and bed width of the canal at its head are 6 m and 39 m, respectively. The link canal on its way will cross the Luni River & its tributaries and the Banas River.



    The Rajasthan-Sabarmati link will provide an annual irrigation of 535,000 ha in the districts of Jaisalmer, Barmer and Jalor of Rajasthan. The total annual irrigation thus envisaged in Rajasthan State through the above two interbasin water transfer links works out to be 779,200 ha.



    Further, interlinking the Gandak, the Ghagra, the Sarda and the Yamuna, all tributaries of the Ganga, on to Rajasthan and the Sabarmati aims at transferring the waters of Gandak and Ghagra Rivers to benefit areas in Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Bihar and Jharkhand. Other important links proposed in the Himalayan component are the Kosi-Ghagra, Gandak-Ganga, Ghagra-Yamuna and Sarda-Yamuna links to supplement the supplies of the Ganga and the Yamuna and for further transfer of water towards the west to Rajasthan and Gujarat. A large canal parallel and to the east of the existing Rajasthan canal is proposed which will be extended beyond the tail of the present Rajasthan canal and be linked to the Sabarmati.


    Peninsular Rivers Development Component

    The main component of Peninsular Rivers Development is the “Southern Water Grid” which is envisaged to link Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Pennar, and Cauvery rivers. The peninsular scheme was envisaged to provide additional irrigation benefits of over 13 million ha. The Peninsular component comprises the following four parts:



    • Diversion of surplus flows of Mahanadi and Godavari to Krishna, Pennar, Cauvery and Vaigai.
    • Diversion of west-flowing rivers of Kerala and Karnataka to the east.
    • Inter-linking small rivers flowing along the west coast, north of Mumbai and south of Tapi.
    • Inter-linking the southern tributaries of Yamuna.
    The peninsular component of ILR has 13 major water storage/diversion structures situated in four basins. Three non-storage structures, viz., Dowlaiswaram barrage, Prakasam barrage, and Grand Anicut and storage node (Narayanpur) cater to only irrigation, while six storage nodes, viz., Inchampalli, Almatti, Nagarjunasagar, Pulichintala, Krishnarajasagar, and Mettur will serve both irrigation and power needs. One storage node, viz., Somasila is operated to meet domestic and irrigation needs and two storage nodes, viz., Polavaram and Srisailam are multi-purpose projects serving domestic, irrigation, and hydropower demands.


    Among these, the interlinking of Mahanadi, Godavari-Krishna-Cauvery rivers will require the construction of a number of large dams and big canals. This system will be one of the largest and ambitious water transfer projects. The system will require huge financial outlays and will have immense influence on economic, social and environmental growth of the region. Logically, therefore, it would be necessary to closely examine the various components and arrive at the best solution. It is pertinent to note that water need not be transferred from a surplus basin, just because it is available. Before adopting such transfers, it would be necessary that all the resources of the recipient basin are put to the optimum use. Sixteen links are proposed in the Peninsular Component.


    Proposed links in the Peninsular Component

    1

    Mahanadi(Manibhadra)-Godavari (d/s)

    2

    Godavari (Inchampalli)-Krishna (Nagarjunsagar)

    3

    Godavari (Inchampalli Low Dam)-Krishna (Nagarjunsagar Tail Pond)

    4

    Godavari (Polavaram)-Krishna (Vijaywada)

    5

    Krishna (Almatti) – Pennar

    6

    Krishna (Srisailam) – Pennar

    7

    Krishna (Nagarjunsagar) – Pennar (Somasila)

    8

    Pennar (Somasila)-Cauvery (Grand Anicut)

    9

    Cauvery (Kattalai) – Vaigai – Gundar

    10

    Ken-Betwa

    11

    Parbati-Kalisindh-Chambal

    12

    Par-Tapi-Narmada

    13

    Damanganga-Pinjal

    14

    Bedti-Varda

    15

    Netravati-Hemavati

    16

    Pamba-Achankovil-Vaippar


    Mahanadi (Manibhadra)-Godavari (Dowlaiswaram) Link
    This link has been proposed between the Manibhadra reservoir on Mahanadi River to the Dowlaiswaram barrage on the Godavari. It will divert 11,176Mm3 of water out of which 3,854 Mm3 is proposed to be used for irrigation of en-route command area and 6,500 Mm3 would be delivered at the Dowlaiswaram barrage. The Manibhadra reservoir has gross and live storages of 9,375 Mm3 and 6,000 Mm3, respectively. The total length of the link canal is about 932 km. The design discharge of the link canal is 627 cumec as its head. The full supply levels at the head and tail are 74.00 m and 13.81 m, respectively.


    Godavari (Inchampalli)-Krishna (Nagarjunsagar) Link
    This link canal is proposed to divert 16,426 Mm3 from the Inchampalli dam on Godavari River. Out of this, 14,200 Mm3 will be transferred to the Nagarjunsagar reservoir on the Krishna River. The total length of the link canal will be about 298.7 km, including a 9 km long tunnel. The FSL at the head and tail are 142.00 m and 182.765, respectively, with a design discharge of 1,219 cumec. The link would involve a total lift of 116 m in four stages. For this purpose, power needed would be 1,705 MW.



    Inchampalli-Pulichintala Link

    This link has been proposed to divert 3,901 Mm3 of surplus water from the Godavari and 470 Mm3 of Inchampalli Right Bank Canal. Each year, the link would provide 1,382 Mm3 of water in the existing Nagarjunasagar Left Bank Canal command, 746 Mm3 in the proposed new area by extension of the Nagarjunasagar Left Bank Canal command, 1,623 Mm3 in the existing Nagarjunasagar Right Bank Canal command through the proposed Pulichintala Right Bank Canal and 470 Mm3 in the command of the Inchampalli Right Bank Canal. In addition to the dam at the Inchampalli, a dam at Pulichintala on the Krishna River has been proposed. The total length of the lift channel will be 270 km including a 25.5 km long tunnel. The FSL at the head and tail will be 106.68 m and 69.68 m, respectively. The link is proposed to be operated for only 240 days in a year with a head discharge of 263 m3/sec.


    Godavari (Polavaram)-Krishna (Vijaywada) Link
    This link canal has been proposed to divert 4,903 Mm3 which include 1,448 Mm3 for Polavaram RBC command, 2,265 Mm3 for the Krishna delta as committed under the Godavari Water Dispute Tribunal award and 1,190 Mm3 for existing ayacut in the Krishna Delta. The proposed Polavaram Barrage will be used to divert the Godavari water to the existing Prakasam Barrage of the Krishna River at Vijayawada. The total length of the link canal will be 174 km and head discharge will be 361 cumec. The canal will operate round the year. The FSL at the head and tail are 40.23 m and 27.96 m, respectively.

    Krishna (Srisailam)-Pennar Link
    The link has been proposed to divert 2,310 Mm3 of water from the Srisailam reservoir to Adinimmayapalli Anicut. The water would mostly flow through natural rivers and it is expected that about 2,095 M m3 would reach the Somasila reservoir. This water is in exchange for surplus waters of the Mahanadi transferred from the Godavari to the Nagarjunasagar. The total length of the channel would be 171.30 km and design discharge will be 186 cumec. This channel would run for 180 days in a year.



    Krishna (Nagarjunsagar) - Pennar (Somasila) Link
    This proposed link would divert 12,146 Mm3 of water from the Nagarjunasagar reservoir to Pennar River at Somasila. Out of this quantity, 2,356 Mm3 will be utilized to irrigate part of the command of the Nagarjunasagar RBC, about 810 Mm3 will be used for en-route irrigation and 8,648 Mm3 will be transferred to the Somasila reservoir. It is important to note that in most interlinking canals, provision has been made for en-route irrigation. Without this, farmers in the en-route area are likely to oppose water transfer and this might create many problems. The total length of the canal is 394 km and its design discharge is 555 cumec. The canal will be operated for 240 days in a year.

    Pennar (Somasila) - Cauvery (Grand Anicut) Link
    The aim of this link is to transfer 8,565 Mm3 of water from the Pennar to the Cauvery. Of this quantity, 3,170 Mm3 would be used for en-route irrigation, 279 Mm3 for en-route domestic and industrial uses, 876 Mm3 for the Chennai city water supply and 3,855 Mm3 would be transferred to the Cauvery River at Grand Anicut. About 385 Mm3 water is likely to be lost during transmission. The total length of the canal will be 538 km and its design discharge will be 616.38 cumec. The canal will be operated for 365 days in a year.

    Cauvery (Kattalai Regulator) - Vaigai - Gundar Link
    The link has been proposed to transfer 2,252 Mm3 of water from the Cauvery River to the Vaigai River to provide irrigation to 353,337 ha annually. The FSLs of the 250 km long link canal at the head and the tail will be 100.75 m and 78.865 m, respectively. This will be a lined canal which would be operated round the year.


    Krishna (Almatti) - Pennar Link

    The canal linking Krishna (Almatti) with Pennar (587 km long) will take off from right bank of the Almatti dam across the Krishna River in Karnataka with FSL of 510.00 m. The canal will run through Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh before joining Maddileru, a tributary of the Pennar near the Malakavemula village. A balancing reservoir is also proposed at Kalavapalli in Anantapur district. The canal will also supplement the Bukkapatnam tank across Chitravathi River. The link canal will carry about 1,980 Mm3 water during the Kharif season and irrigate about 70,000 ha in Karnataka and 190,000 ha in the Anantapur district of AP. Allocation of 56 Mm3 has also been made for domestic and industrial uses. There is a possibility of additional ground water recharge around the Kalavapalli reservoir and the Bukkapatnam tank.


    Ken - Betwa Link

    The Ken-Betwa and the Parbati-Kalisindh-Chambal links of the ILR project are the links on which urgent attention is being focused by the Government. The feasibility report of the Ken-Betwa link is available in the public domain at www.riverlinks.nic.in.



    The Ken-Betwa link envisages diversion of surplus waters of Ken basin to water deficit Betwa basin. This link canal will provide irrigation to water short areas of upper Betwa basin of MP and also to en-route areas of MP & UP. It is proposed to transfer 1,020 Mm3 of water from Ken basin to provide irrigation in Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Apart from drinking water facility and en-route irrigation of 47,000 ha in Chhatarpur & Tikamgarh districts of Madhya Pradesh and Hamirpur & Jhansi districts of UP, provision for downstream commitments of 1,375 Mm3 for MP and 850 Mm3 of water for UP has also been kept.



    A dam is proposed on Ken River at Daudhan, 2.5 km upstream of existing Gangau weir. The 75% dependable yield of Ken at Daudhan site has been assessed as 6,188 Mm3. The net water availability at dam site after accounting all the upstream requirements is 3,291 Mm3. The downstream commitments from Ken at Daudhan are 2,225 Mm3. Out of which, 850 Mm3 is provided to UP and 1,375 Mm3 to MP as per Interstate agreement (1981) on Ken River. The surplus water for diversion at Daudhan is 1,020 Mm3. Out of which, 659 Mm3 will be transferred to Betwa River upstream of Parichha weir and 312 Mm3 will be utilized in the en-route command.

    The dam proposed at Daudhan is an earthen dam with two power houses (installed capacities of 3 x 20 MW and 2 x 6 MW). One Power House will be a pumped storage scheme. The design discharge of the link canal at its head is 72 cumec. The link canal after traversing about 230 km will outfall in existing Barwa Sagar reservoir from where the diverted water will join Betwa river through a natural stream in the upstream of Parichha weir. An area of 1.27 lakh ha in the Raisen and Vidisha districts of Madhya Pradesh will be benefited by water from this link. This link will also provide annual irrigation to 47,000 ha area en-route in the drought prone Chhatarpur and Tikamgarh districts of MP and Hamirpur and Jhansi districts of UP. The link will also provide 11.75 Mm3 water for domestic uses in the en-route villages of Chhatarpur and Tikamgarh districts of MP and Hamirpur and Jhansi districts of UP.



    Par - Tapi - Narmada Link Canal

    This link canal was proposed to divert surplus water of the rivers, like Par, Auranga, Ambica, Purna and Tapi, up to Vadodara branch of Narmada Command. About 1,350 MCM surplus water is proposed to be diverted by the Par-Tapi link canal up to Ukai Dam and 2,904 MCM surplus water is proposed to be diverted by the Tapi-Narmada link canal (including 1,554 MCM surplus water of Tapi at Ukai). The total length of the Par-Tapi-Narmada link canal is 402 km – the length of the Par-Tapi link will be 177 km and the Tapi-Narmada link will be 225 km. Seven reservoirs are proposed in the upstream catchment area of 2,573 sq. km. The link canal passes through dense forest and hilly region.


    Damanganga - Pinjal Link Canal

    The proposed Damanganga-Pinjal Link Project envisages the construction of reservoirs at Bhugad and Khargihill. The gross storage of these two reservoirs will be 426.39 & 460.79 million cubic meters (MCM) and live storage will be 400 & 420.56 MCM, respectively. The FRL will be 163.87 m and 154.52 m, respectively. The reservoirs will be connected by 16.85 km long pressure tunnel of 5.00 m diameter. Another 25.70 km long and 5.25 m diameter tunnel will connect Khargihill and Pinjal reservoirs. The surplus water from Bhugad and Khargihill reservoirs will be transferred through pressure tunnels to Pinjal reservoir for onward transmission to Greater Mumbai. This link canal is proposed to supply 909 MCM water annually to Mumbai City to improve the existing inadequate availability of domestic and industrial water.



    The project lies partly in the Valsad district of Gujarat and partly in Nasik and Thane districts of Maharashtra. The Bhugad dam site on Damanganga River will intercept 141 km2 catchment area of Gujarat State. It will be located near Bhugad village in the Nasik district and Modushi village in Valsad district. The Khargihill dam will be constructed on the Vagh River near Behapada village in Thane. The Bhugad-Khargihill and Khargihill-Pinjal tunnels lie entirely in Maharashtra.



    Pamba - Achankovil - Vaippar Link Project

    The proposed Pamba-Achankovil-Vaippar Link project has three storage reservoirs, two tunnels, necessary canal system and a few power generating units. The Punnamedu reservoir (reservoir-2) is located on river Pamba Kal Ar in Pamba basin in Kerala state, which serves a part/full of its downstream mandatory requirements and supplies surplus water to reservoir-1 through tunnel-2. The Achankovil Kal Ar reservoir (reservoir-1) located on the Achankovil Kal Ar River in the Achankovil river basin of Kerala state, supplies water for irrigation purposes to the state of Tamil Nadu, through tunnel-1 to the main canal. The water from the main canal is then distributed to the command area of Vaippar basin in Tamil Nadu state. Besides this, reservoir-1 releases 10 MCM of water daily during six hours of peak load period for power generation. The Achankovil reservoir (reservoir-3), which is located on Achankovil River in the Achankovil river basin of Kerala state, besides acting as a pumped storage scheme accommodating the water drawn from the upstream reservoir-1, also serves the purpose of releasing water downstream to meet its downstream mandatory demands. The 10 MCM of water drawn to the downstream reservoir-3 from reservoir-1 for power generation is pumped back to reservoir-1 in a 16 hours period. Also, if there is deficit at reservoir-1, the surplus water of reservoir-3 can be pumped back to reservoir-l.

    The Indian Rivers Inter-link is a large-scale civil engineering project that aims to join the majority of India's rivers by canals and so reduce persistent water shortages in parts of India.

    [​IMG]

    The project
    The Inter-link would consist of two parts,
    1) Northern Himalayan River Development component
    2) Southern Peninsular River Development component

    Himalayan development
    The northern component would consist of a series of dams built along the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers in India, Nepal and Bhutan for the purposes of storage. Canals would be built to transfer surplus water from the eastern tributaries of the Ganges to the west. The Brahmaputra and its tributaries would be linked with the Ganges and the Ganges with the Mahanadi river. This part of the project would provide additional irrigation for about 220,000 square kilometres and generate about 30 gigawatts of electricity. In theory it would provide extra flood control in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins. It could also provide excess water for the controversial Farakka Barrage which could be used to flush out the silt at the port of Calcutta.


    Peninsular development
    The main part of the project would send water from the eastern part of India to the south and west. The southern development project would consist of four main parts. First, the Mahanadi, Godavari. Krishna and Cauvery rivers would all be linked by canals. Extra water storage dams would be built along the course of these rivers. The purpose of this would be to transfer surplus water from the Mahanadi and Godavari rivers to the south of India. Second, those rivers that flow west to the north of Mumbai and the south of Tapi would be linked. Due to the irregular fluctuations in water levels in the region, as much storage capacity would be built as possible. The water would be used by the urban areas of Bombay and also to provide irrigation in the coastal areas of Maharashtra. Third the Ken and Chambal rivers would be linked in order to provide better water facilities for Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Finally a number of west-flowing rivers along the Western Ghats simply discharge into the Arabian Sea. As many of these as possible would be diverted for irrigation purposes. The Peninsular part of the project would provide additional irrigation to 130,000 square kilometres and generation an additional 4 gigawatts of power.

    India's first river-linking project takes shape: will it revitalise BJP's fortunes?


    [​IMG]
    Bhopal: Before the general elections, the BJP-led Madhya Pradesh government has gifted the Malwa region India's first ever river-linking project to solve the problem of water scarcity there.

    As part of the Narmada-Kshipra link project, Narmada's water has been lifted to 350 metres and through pipelines spread over almost 49 kilometres to Kshipra river in Ujjain, about 15 kilometres from Indore. Inaugurated by senior BJP leader LK Advani on Tuesday, the first phase of the project was completed in a record time of 14 months.

    Interlinking of rivers was former PM Atal Bihari Vajpayee's dream project in the NDA government, but it has started taking shape only 10 years later. To commemorate the project, BJP's top brass has gathered in Ujjain.

    "When all phases of the project are complete 3,000 villages, 72 towns will get drinking water and water to irrigate 16 lakh acres of land," said Chief Minister Shivraj Singh Chouhan.

    The project has three more phases which will connect river Ganga to three rivers - Gambhir, Kalisindh, Parvati. Malwa region, which will benefit from this project, is water scarce. Since the BJP did not do well in the 2009 general elections here, the project is also being seen an attempt by the BJP to woo voters in the region. However, BJP prime ministerial candidate Narendra Modi was missing from both the stage and the posters at the two venues of the event.

    Mr Advani praised the state government's effort and at the same time pushed the party's agenda. "Supreme Court has recommended that central government should work on linking river scheme. The next government will work for it and Shivraj has already started the work by linking Narmada and Kshipra," he said.

    The project has been inaugurated just a few weeks before the model code of conduct is imposed before the Lok Sabha elections. The people from Malwa have their own take on the timing of this inauguration.

    "Shivraj has done a commendable job it is better than the proposed sawarkhedi dam as it would have displaced people from villages," said one Anil Sharma.

    Whereas, another resident Rahul said, "Just before Lok Sabha polls both parties are doing politics. Shivraj with this river project scheme is trying to ensure BJP's victory in Malwa region."
     
  13. rockey 71

    rockey 71 Regular Member

    Joined:
    Mar 5, 2015
    Messages:
    995
    Likes Received:
    321
    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]

    Another graphic elaboration of the damage to be caused not only to BD but most Indian States also.
     
  14. Abhijat

    Abhijat Regular Member

    Joined:
    Apr 17, 2014
    Messages:
    469
    Likes Received:
    350
    Location:
    Nothingness
    This is from your article.

    Also, the envisaged project, is for flood control and availability of water during dry period of river in summer.

    The pros and Cons are something to be discussed in another thread.
     
  15. Abhijat

    Abhijat Regular Member

    Joined:
    Apr 17, 2014
    Messages:
    469
    Likes Received:
    350
    Location:
    Nothingness
    And regarding the Himalayan connection , don't worry , it's in planning stage and even a DPR preparation has not taken place.


    http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=123206

    The Minister said that his Ministry would soon be taking up the planning of a very important link, Manas-Sankosh-Teesta-Ganga in consultation with the Governments of Assam, West-Bengal and Bihar
     
  16. rockey 71

    rockey 71 Regular Member

    Joined:
    Mar 5, 2015
    Messages:
    995
    Likes Received:
    321
    And who will consult BD? We would be the sufferers here.
     
  17. punjab47

    punjab47 महाबलामहावीर्यामहासत्यपराक्रमासर्वाग्रेक्षत्रियाजट Banned

    Joined:
    Jul 31, 2015
    Messages:
    1,059
    Likes Received:
    493
    I don't see how 20 crore muslim suffering, is a bad thing.
     
  18. rockey 71

    rockey 71 Regular Member

    Joined:
    Mar 5, 2015
    Messages:
    995
    Likes Received:
    321
    It is people like you who make SA a pungent place for peace loving people.
     
    SANITY likes this.
  19. rohit.gr77

    rohit.gr77 Regular Member

    Joined:
    Feb 24, 2015
    Messages:
    134
    Likes Received:
    108
    Location:
    Mumbai
    Did China consult to you before building a dam on Brahmaputra?
    So why is your ass burning if India just proposed a project, not even started implementation on it.
     
    Sameet Pattnaik and Abhijat like this.
  20. Abhijat

    Abhijat Regular Member

    Joined:
    Apr 17, 2014
    Messages:
    469
    Likes Received:
    350
    Location:
    Nothingness
    @rockey 71 , if you had actually gone through the articles published , you would have realized that , this Inter linking of project , can't be done 'unilaterally' by India .

    Also, the benefit incurred will be for whole region i.e whole of "South Asia" .

    Anyway, you seem to be a politically motivated guy , so, try to think in terms of "agricultural expansion" , which can be incurred by implementation of this project and it will, more so , be beneficial to Bangladesh , as it will be having greater effect due to loss of productive land due to global warming.
     
  21. rockey 71

    rockey 71 Regular Member

    Joined:
    Mar 5, 2015
    Messages:
    995
    Likes Received:
    321
    So is your ar$$ burning over the Chinese project?
     

Share This Page