China: environmental and cultural harm to Inner Mongolia's grasslands

Discussion in 'China' started by Ray, Jun 8, 2014.

  1. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    China: The environmental and cultural harm to Inner Mongolia's grasslands

    Temperatures and tensions are rising as miners - and tourists - move in to one of China's most remote and ecologically fragile regions


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    Mongolian herders and students hold a banner which reads 'Defend our homeland' during a protest in Left Ujumchin county in northern China's Inner Mongolia province.

    Chinese riot police were reportedly dragging off protesting herders while I was blithely listening to karaoke on the Inner Mongolian grasslands this week.

    I was unaware of the trouble, though I was on a family holiday in the same northern region. This is not entirely surprising given the vastness of an area that covers more than a million square kilometres and the ruthlessness of a censorship regime that blocks websites and locks up individuals for emailing images of protests. But even from the perspective of a holidaymaker, I could see why the changes in the region - particularly to the environment - might spark unrest.

    I chose Manzhouli - close to China's border with Mongolia (the country) and Russia - for a summer break because its grasslands are supposed to be tranquil, cool, sparsely populated and extremely beautiful. I should have realised, though, it would not turn out as expected.

    Instead of a secluded Mongolian camp, we ended up in a complex of concrete yurts with a karaoke machine, firework display and bonfire disco that blasted out techno music across the starlit steppe. I was at first dismayed, then resigned. On the bright side, it was funny in a not-at-all-like-the-brochure sort of way. Not so amusing was the reduction of Mongolia culture to a series of song-and-dance shows and the evident deterioration of the environment.

    At this time of year, locals said the grass was usually lush green and knee high. But amid a severe drought, the blades were yellowing and barely reached my ankles. Some areas had already turned to desert and several nearby lakes had dried up so completely that their beds were cracked and white with salt deposits. One herder told me he would soon have to buy fodder - unthinkable in past summers. His concerns appeared unlikely to make ripples; Timber yards and open cast pits suggested the local economy is now dependent on mining and the processing of logs imported from Siberia.

    It is a similar story across much of Inner Mongolia. In recent years, the region has become China's leading producer of coal and rare earths as well as the doorway to Russia (and the biggest timber trade in the world). This has attracted an influx of Han businessmen. Meanwhile, the traditional nomadic lifestyle has come under multiple assault from open-cast mining, over-grazing, enclosed farming, migration and global warming.

    Many Mongolians - who make up only a fifth of the population in their homeland - are unhappy about these trends. Last month, I covered

    the wave of protests sparked by the killing of a Mongolian herder by a Han truck driver. This week, police are said to have beaten up and detained ethnic Mongolians who demonstrated against a lead mine in Bayannuur. According to the New York-based Southern Mongolian Human Rights Information Centre, the protesters shut down the mine's water pump when it expanded on to their grazing lands. Local police and the mine's owners, however, told The Guardian "nothing happened".

    The authorities might deny the social impact, but something is definitely happening to the environment in Inner Mongolia, just as it is happening in Tibet and Xinjiang. An indigenous population is being squeezed out by a more powerful ethnic group that wants to exploit the region's resources. It is an old story, similar to that seen in the US, Australia, New Zealand and many other parts of the world over the past few centuries, but with the added complications of climate change and globalisation.

    Earlier this week, Radio Free Asia reported that a protest song has been written by a Mongolian rapper. Downloadable here, the lyrics make a direct connection between environmental abuse and social unrest:

    "We have grazed animals here thousands of years...How many people are coming here to open mines and plunder our resources...Our home is being devastated..The green grasslands are turning yellow."

    I have not been able to verify how popular this rap has become in Inner Mongolia, but it is unlikely to ever appear on a karaoke machine here

    China: The environmental and cultural harm to Inner Mongolia's grasslands | Jonathan Watts | Environment | theguardian.com
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    Inspite of the claimed greatness of the Chinese civilisations, the modern Han seems to be in a headlong rush to do anything so long it yields money.

    They have lost their values and their respect for the environment, traditions and customs, especially when it concerns the so called 'minorities'.

    Nothing surprising actually since in actuality as per their history, they have always labelled the non Han people as 'barbarians' and treated them with contempt, as they do for Uighurs in mainland China, who are taken to be rough, crude and petty thieves and are mocked roundly everywhere in China and looked at with utter contempts as if they were untermenschen.

    The Han must take the sensitivities of minorities or else they will have a huge problem on their hand as they are now facing in Xinijaing.
     
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  3. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    Re: China: environmental and cultural harm to Inner Mongolia's grassla

    In rush to urbanize, China flattens 700 mountains

    In rush to urbanize, China flattens 700 mountains
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    An indication how China is solely focused on money making, with little regard for the consequence to the environment they are causing with blatant changing of nature.
     
  4. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    Re: China: environmental and cultural harm to Inner Mongolia's grassla

    Risk posed by China mountain removal

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    Satellite images of western Shiyan between 2010 (L) and 2012 (R) show that several peaks have been flattened

    Prof Li said: "Mountainous cities such as Yan'an are mostly located in relatively flat valleys.

    "The valleys are narrow and limit the development of the cities - and huge population density is also a factor."

    While mountaintop removal is sometimes used by the mining industry, particularly in the US, researchers say the scale of this in China is unparalleled.

    They warn that turning hills into plains is throwing dust particles into the atmosphere, polluting waterways, causing landslides and flooding and endangering plants and animals.

    They add that the flattened land could also be unsuitable to build on.

    Prof Li explained: "The most concerning issue is the safety of constructing cities on the newly created land.

    "Yan'an, for example, is the largest project ever attempted on land that is composed of thick windblown silt.

    "Such soft soils can subside when wet, causing structural collapse and land subsidence. Building on such soils is quite dangerous and it would take a very long time for the ground base to become stable."

    Assessing risks
    The scientists say that the Chinese government should work with national and international experts to fully assess the risks before they continue.

    We don't have any experience with manipulations on this scale: It's a large experiment”

    Prof Brian McGlynn
    Duke University

    Commenting on the issue, Prof Brian McGlynn, from Duke University in the US, told BBC Radio 4's Inside Science programme: "In the US and China, we're moving ahead without much insight into what the result will be, especially when it comes to the water, the hydrology, the water quality implications.

    "The [comment] article focuses on the structural issues, the ability of the land to stabilise. In addition to that we're massively changing the flow of water and material it comes into contact with.

    "We don't have any experience with manipulations on this scale: It's a large experiment."

    Dr Jan Zalasiewicz, from the University of Leicester, added: "We're in new territory with these kinds of changes.

    "There are other projects as well, like the Palm Island in Dubai, which is moving billions of tonnes of materials in one place to another to create a new landscape.

    "And while humans have been doing that on a small to moderate scale for quite a long time, this is now exceeding the state of natural processes."

    More at

    BBC News - Risk posed by China mountain removal
     

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