China and Unequal Treaties

Discussion in 'China' started by Ray, May 4, 2012.

  1. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    “Unequal treaty” is a term used in specific reference to a number of treaties imposed by Western powers, during the 19th and early 20th centuries, on Qing Dynasty China and late Tokugawa Japan. The term is also applied to treaties imposed during the same time frame on late Joseon Dynasty Korea by the post-Meiji Restoration Empire of Japan.

    The treaties were often signed by these Asian states after suffering military defeat in various skirmishes or wars with the foreign powers or when there was a threat of military action by those powers.

    Overview

    The term "unequal treaty" did not come into use until early in the 20th century. These treaties were considered unequal in China "because they were not negotiated by nations treating each other as equals but were imposed on China after a war, and because they encroached upon China's sovereign rights ... which reduced her to semicolonial status".[1] In many cases China was effectively forced to pay large amounts of reparations, open up ports for trade, cede or lease territories (such as Hong Kong to Great Britain and Macau to Portugal), and make various other concessions of sovereignty to foreign "spheres of influence", following military defeats.

    The earliest attempt to settle a conflict between Western and Asian powers was the 1841 Convention of Chuenpee negotiations during the First Opium War.[2] China and Great Britain signed the first unequal treaties under the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842.[3] Following Qing China's defeat, treaties with Britain opened up five ports to foreign trade, while also allowing foreign missionaries, at least in theory, to reside within China. In addition, the administration of justice on foreign residents in the port cities were afforded trials by their own consular authorities rather than the Chinese legal system, a concept termed extraterritoriality.

    Some countries failed to press unequal treaties upon China: the Chinese forced the Italians to give up on a demand to hand over Sanmen Bay to them.[4]

    When the United States Commodore Matthew Perry forced open Japan in 1854, Japan was soon prompted to sign the Convention of Kanagawa, which was similar to ones China had signed.

    Korea's first unequal treaty was not with the West but with Japan. Taking a page from Western tactics, in 1875 Japan sent Captain Inoue Yoshika and the warship Un'yō to display military might over Korea in the Ganghwa Island incident. This forced Korea to open its doors to Japan by signing the Japan-Korea Treaty of 1876.[5]

    The unequal treaties ended at various times for the countries involved. Japan's victories in the 1894–95 First Sino-Japanese War convinced many in the West that unequal treaties could no longer be enforced on Japan. Korea's unequal treaties with European states became largely null and void in 1910, when it was annexed by Japan.

    After World War I, patriotic consciousness in China focused on the treaties, which now became widely known as "unequal treaties." Nationalist Party and the Communist Party competed to convince the public that their approach would be more effective. [6] Germany was forced to terminate its rights, the Soviet Union ostentatiously surrendered them, and the United States organized Washington Conference to negotiate them. After Chiang Kai-shek declared a new national government in 1927, the western powers quickly offered diplomatic recognition, arousing anxiety in Japan. [7] The new government declared to the Great Powers that China had been exploited for decades under unequal treaties, and that the time for such treaties was over, demanding they renegotiate all of them on equal terms.[8] In the face of Japanese expansion in China, however, ending the system was postponed.

    Most of China's unequal treaties were abrogated during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which started in 1937 and merged into the larger context of World War II. The United States Congress ended American extraterritoriality in December, 1943. Significant examples of unequal treaties on China did outlast World War II: unequal treaties regarding Hong Kong remained in place until Hong Kong's 1997 handover, and in 1969, to improve Sino-Russian relations, China reconfirmed the 1859 Treaty of Aigun.

    Select list of unequal treaties

    Imposed on China

    Treaty of Nanjing 南京條約 1842 British Empire
    Treaty of the Bogue 虎門條約 1843 British Empire
    Treaty of Wanghia 中美望廈條約 1844 United States
    Treaty of Whampoa 黃埔條約 1844 France French colonial empire
    Treaty of Canton 中瑞廣州條約 1847 United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway
    Treaty of Kulja 中俄伊犁塔爾巴哈台通商章程 1851 Russian Empire
    Treaty of Aigun 璦琿條約 1858 Russian Empire
    Treaty of Tientsin 天津條約 1858 France French colonial empire, British Empire, Russian Empire, United States
    Convention of Peking 北京條約 1860 British Empire, France French colonial empire, Russian Empire
    Treaty of Tientsin 中德通商條約 1861 Prussia, German Confederation
    Chefoo Convention 煙台條約 1876 British Empire
    Treaty of Saint Petersburg 伊犁條約 1881 Russian Empire
    Treaty of Tientsin (1885) 中法新約 1885 France French colonial empire
    Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking 中葡北京條約 1887 Portugal Kingdom of Portugal
    Treaty of Shimonoseki (Treaty of Maguan) 馬關條約 1895 Empire of Japan
    Li-Lobanov Treaty 中俄密约 1896 Russian Empire
    Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory 展拓香港界址專條 1898 British Empire
    Guangzhouwan Leased Terrority 廣州灣租界條約 1899 France French colonial empire
    Boxer Protocol 辛丑條約 1901 British Empire, United States, Empire of Japan, Russian Empire, France French colonial empire, German Empire, Kingdom of Italy, Austria-Hungary, Kingdom of Belgium, Kingdom of Spain, Kingdom of the Netherlands
    Simla Accord 西姆拉條約 1914 British Empire
    Twenty-One Demands 二十一條 1915 Empire of Japan
    Tanggu Truce 塘沽協定 1933 Empire of Japan

    Alternative viewpoints

    Writing in the Hong Kong Law Journal, Peter Wesley-Smith suggests that many of these treaties were signed by participants acting ultra vires of their legal authority, which should have made those treaties illegitimate.[39]

    Writing in the Yale Law Journal, March 1972, Lung-chu Chen and W. M. Reisman argued that the proclamation by China in 1941 that all treaties with Japan were abrogated was devoid of any legality and effect in international law. As supporting evidence, they refer to the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, art. 43. However, the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties did not come into force until after 1980 and only covered treaties concluded after the entry into force of the Convention. Moreover, they note that "title" to Taiwan territory vested in Japan at the time of, and/or because of, the Treaty of Shimonoseki, as the language of the Treaty clearly indicated. Such title, insofar as it is title, ceases to be a bilateral contractual relationship and becomes a real relationship in international law. Though contract may be a modality for transferring title, title is not a contractual relationship.[40] Professor Y. Frank Chiang, writing in the Fordham International Law Journal in 2004, expanded upon this analysis to state that there are no international law principles which can serve to validate a unilateral proclamation to abrogate (or revoke) a territorial treaty, whether based on a charge of being "unequal," or due to a subsequent "aggression" of the other party to the treaty, or any other reason.

    Unequal treaty - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
     
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  3. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    Now if those are unequal treaties as per China, can others also not claim many unequal treaties were subjected by China on them?

    Or is China Goody Two Shoes and pure as driven snow?

    Their maps on SCS is the real McCoy?
     
  4. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    A chronology of key events:

    ca 1700-1046 BC - Shang Dynasty - the first Chinese state for which clear written records remain - unites much of north central China.

    1045-ca 770 BC - Zhou dynasty replaces Shang as dominant force across northern China,

    ca 770 BC - Zhou state collapses into loose association of warring states, known as the Eastern Zhou.

    Imperial China

    221-206 BC - King Ying Zheng of Qin for the first time unites much of the Chinese heartland, becomes the first ruler to use the title "emperor" as Qin Shihuangdi ("First Qin Emperor") and builds first Great Wall of China, but his empire quickly collapses after his death. After a brief period of instability, Liu Bang founds the Han dynasty.

    206 BC - 220 AD - Han Dynasty: first durable state governing the entire Chinese heartland, ushers in first Chinese cultural "golden age", growth in money economy, and the promotion of Confucianism as the state philosophy. Buddhism makes its first inroads into China.

    220 - 589 - Collapse of Han state results in nearly four centuries of division between competing dynasties before China is reunited by the short-lived Sui dynasty. Start of the development of southern China.

    618-907 - Tang Dynasty unites China for nearly three centuries, in what is seen as the second high point of Chinese civilisation after the Han; imperial sphere of influence reaches Central Asia for the first time.

    960-1279 - Song Dynasty: While weaker than the Tang empire militarily and politically, Song rule marks a high point of Chinese classical culture, with a flowering of literature, scientific innovation and the adoption of Neo-Confucianism as the official state ideology.

    Mongol rule

    1271-1368 - Mongols conquer China and establish their own Yuan Dynasty, founded by Kublai Khan. Marco Polo and other Westerners visit. Beijing becomes the capital of a united China.

    1368 - Ming Dynasty overthrows Mongols and establishes sophisticated agricultural economy, underpinning strong centralised bureaucracy and military. Great Wall of China completed in the form seen today.

    1644 - Manchu Qing Dynasty drives out Ming. Chinese empire reaches its zenith, with the annexation of Tibet, Mongolia and present-day Xinjiang (Turkestan).

    19th Century - Qing Dynasty begins a long decline. Western powers impose "unequal treaties" that create foreign concessions in China's ports. Regional warlords rise as central government atrophies.

    1899-1901 - "Boxer Rebellion" in Northern China seeks to stifle reforms in the Qing administration, drive out foreigners and re-establish traditional rule. Defeated by foreign intervention, with Western powers, Russia and Japan extracting further conce
    The Republic

    1911-12 - Military revolts by reform-minded officers lead to proclamation of Republic of China under Sun Yat-sen and abdication of last Qing emperor. Republic struggles to consolidate its rule amid regional warlordism and the rise of the Communist Party.

    1925 - The death of Sun Yat-sen brings Chiang Kai-shek to the fore. He breaks with the Communists and confirms the governing Kuomintang as a nationalist party.

    1931-45 - Japan invades and gradually occupies more and more of China.

    1934-35 - Mao Zedong emerges as Communist leader during the party's "Long March" to its new base in Shaanxi Province.

    1937 - Kuomintang and Communists nominally unite against Japanese. Civil war resumes after Japan's defeat in Second World War.
    Communist victory

    1949 - 1 October - Mao Zedong, having led the Communists to victory against the Nationalists after more than 20 years of civil war, proclaims the founding of the People's Republic of China. The Nationalists retreat to the island of Taiwan and set up a government there.

    1950 - China intervenes in the Korean War on the side of North Korea.

    Tibet becomes part of the People's Republic of China

    1958 - Mao launches the "Great Leap Forward", a five-year economic plan. Farming is collectivised and labour-intensive industry is introduced. The drive produces economic breakdown and is abandoned after two years. Disruption to agriculture is blamed for the deaths by starvation of millions of people following poor harvests.

    1959 - Chinese forces suppress large-scale revolt in Tibet.

    1962 - Brief conflict with India over disputed Himalayan border.

    1966-76 - "Cultural Revolution", Mao's 10-year political and ideological campaign aimed at reviving revolutionary spirit, produces massive social, economic and political upheaval.

    1972 - US President Richard Nixon visits. Both countries declare a desire to normalise relations.

    1976 - Mao dies. "Gang of Four", including Mao's widow, jockey for power but are arrested and convicted of crimes against the state. From 1977 Deng Xiaoping emerges as the dominant figure among pragmatists in the leadership. Under him, China undertakes far-reaching economic reforms.

    1979 - Diplomatic relations established with the US.

    Government imposes one-child policy in effort to curb population growth.

    1986-90 - China's "Open-door policy" opens the country to foreign investment and encourages development of a market economy and private sector.

    1989 - Troops open fire on demonstrators who have camped for weeks in Tiananmen Square initially to demand the posthumous rehabilitation of former CCP General Secretary Hu Yaobang, who was forced to resign in 1987. The official death toll is 200. International outrage leads to sanctions

    1989 - Jiang Zemin takes over as Chinese Communist Party general secretary from Zhao Ziyang, who refused to support martial law during the Tiananmen demonstrations.

    Stockmarkets open in Shanghai and Shenzhen.

    1992 - Russia and China sign declaration restoring friendly ties.

    The International Monetary Fund (IMF) ranks China's economy as third largest in the world after the US and Japan.
    Three Gorges project

    1993 - Jiang Zemin officially replaces Yang Shangkun as president.

    Preliminary construction work on the Three Gorges dam begins. It will create a lake almost 600 kilometres (375 miles) long and submerge dozens of cultural heritage sites by the time it is completed in 2009.

    1994 - China abolishes the official renminbi (RMB) currency exchange rate and fixes its first floating rate since 1949.

    1995 - China tests missiles and holds military exercises in the Taiwan Strait, apparently to intimidate Taiwan during its presidential elections.

    1996 - China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan - dubbed the Shanghai Five - meet in Shanghai and agree to cooperate to combat ethnic and religious tensions in each others' countries.

    1997 - Deng Xiaoping dies, aged 92. Rioting erupts in Yining, Xinjiang and on day of Deng's funeral Xinjiang separatists plant three bombs on buses in Urumqi, Xinjiang, killing nine and injuring 74.

    Hong Kong reverts to Chinese control.

    1998 - Zhu Rongji succeeds Li Peng as premier, announces reforms in the wake of the Asian financial crisis and continued deceleration of the economy. Thousands of state-owned enterprises are to be restructured through amalgamations, share flotations and bankruptcies. About four million civil service jobs to be axed.

    Large-scale flooding of the Yangtse, Songhua and Nenjiang rivers.
    50th anniversary

    1999 - Nato bombs the Chinese embassy in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, souring Sino-US relations.

    Falun Gong, a quasi-religious sect, outlawed as a threat to stability.

    Fiftieth anniversary of People's Republic of China on 1st October.

    Macao reverts to Chinese rule.

    2000 - Crackdown on official corruption intensifies, with the execution for bribe taking of a former deputy chairman of the National People's Congress.

    Bomb explosion kills up to 60 in Urumqi, Xinjiang.

    2001 April - Diplomatic stand-off over the detention of an American spy plane and crew after a mid-air collision with a Chinese fighter jet.

    2001 June - Leaders of China, Russia and four Central Asian states launch the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) and sign an agreement to fight ethnic and religious militancy while promoting trade and investment. The group emerges when the Shanghai Five - China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan - are joined by Uzbekistan.

    2001 June - China carries out military exercises simulating an invasion of Taiwan, at the same time as the island's armed forces test their capability to defend Taiwan against a missile attack from China.

    2001 November - China joins the World Trade Organisation.

    2002 February - US President George W Bush visits, on the 30th anniversary of President Nixon's visit to China - the first by a US president.

    2002 July - The US says China is modernising its military to make possible a forcible reunification with Taiwan. Beijing says its policy remains defensive.

    2002 November - Vice-President Hu Jintao is named head of the ruling Communist Party, replacing Jiang Zemin, the outgoing president. Jiang is re-elected head of the influential Central Military Commission, which oversees the armed forces.

    2003 March - National People's Congress elects Hu Jintao as president. He replaces Jiang Zemin, who steps down after 10 years in the post.
    Sars virus outbreak

    2003 March-April - China and Hong Kong are hit by the pneumonia-like Sars virus, thought to have originated in Guangdong province in November 2002. Strict quarantine measures are enforced to stop the disease spreading.

    2003 June - Sluice gates on Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest hydropower scheme, are closed to allow the reservoir to fill up.

    2003 June - Hong Kong is declared free of Sars. Days later the World Health Organization lifts its Sars-related travel warning for Beijing.

    2003 June - China, India reach de facto agreement over status of Tibet and Sikkim in landmark cross-border trade agreement.

    2003 July-August - Some 500,000 people march in Hong Kong against Article 23, a controversial anti-subversion bill. Two key Hong Kong government officials resign. The government shelves the bill.
    China in space

    2003 October - Launch of China's first manned spacecraft: Astronaut Yang Liwei is sent into space by a Long March 2F rocket.

    2004 September - Former president Jiang Zemin stands down as army chief, three years ahead of schedule.

    2004 November - China signs a landmark trade agreement with 10 south-east Asian countries; the accord could eventually unite 25% of the world's population in a free-trade zone.

    2005 January - Former reformist leader Zhao Ziyang dies. He opposed violent measures to end 1989's student protests and spent his last years under virtual house arrest.

    Aircraft chartered for the Lunar New Year holiday make the first direct flights between China and Taiwan since 1949.

    2005 March - Hong Kong Chief Executive Tung Chee-hwa resigns. He is succeeded in June by Donald Tsang.

    New law on Taiwan calls for use of force should Taipei declare independence from mainland China.
    Tensions with Japan

    2005 April - Relations with Japan deteriorate amid sometimes-violent anti-Japanese protests in Chinese cities, sparked by a Japanese textbook which China says glosses over Japan's World War II record.

    Taiwan's National Party leader Lien Chan visits China for the first meeting between Nationalist and Communist Party leaders since 1949.

    2005 August - China and Russia hold their first joint military exercises.

    2005 October - China conducts its second manned space flight, with two astronauts circling Earth in the Shenzhou VI capsule.

    2005 November - Explosion at a chemical plant poisons the Songhua river, cutting off water supplies to millions of people.

    2006 May - Work on the structure of the Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest hydropower project, is completed.

    2006 July - New China-Tibet railway line, the world's highest train route, begins operating.

    2006 August - Official news agency says 18 million people are affected by what it describes as the country's worst drought in 50 years.

    2006 November - African heads of state gather for a China-Africa summit in Beijing. Business deals worth nearly $2bn are signed and China promises billions of dollars in loans and credits.

    Government says pollution has degraded China's environment to a critical level, threatening health and social stability.
    Missile test

    2007 January - Reports say China has carried out a missile test in space, shooting down an old weather satellite. The US, Japan and others express concern at China's military build-up.

    2007 February - President Hu Jintao tours eight African countries to boost trade and investment. Western rights groups criticise China for dealing with corrupt or abusive regimes.

    2007 April - During a landmark visit, Wen Jiabao becomes the first Chinese prime minister to address Japan's parliament. Both sides agree to try to iron out differences over their shared history.

    2007 June - New labour law introduced after hundreds of men and boys were found working as slaves in brick factories.

    2007 July - China's food and drug agency chief is executed for taking bribes. Food and drug scandals have sparked international fears about the safety of Chinese exports.

    2007 September - A new Roman Catholic bishop of Beijing is consecrated - the first for over 50 years to have the tacit approval of the Pope.

    2007 October - China launches its first moon orbiter.

    2008 January - The worst snowstorms in decades are reported to have affected up to 100 million people.
    Tibet unrest

    2008 March - Anti-China protests escalate into the worst violence Tibet has seen in 20 years, five months before Beijing hosts the Olympic Games.

    Pro-Tibet activists in several countries focus world attention on the region by disrupting progress of the Olympic torch relay.

    2008 May - A massive earthquake hits Sichuan province, killing tens of thousands.

    2008 June - China and Taiwan agree to set up offices in each other's territory at the first formal bilateral talks since 1999.

    Japan and China reach a deal for the joint development of a gas field in the East China Sea, resolving a four-year-old dispute.

    2008 July - China and Russia sign a treaty ending 40-year-old border dispute which led to armed clashes during the Cold War.

    2008 August - Beijing hosts Olympic Games.

    Hua Guofeng, who succeeded Mao Zedong for a short period in 1976, dies in Beijing aged 87

    2008 September - Astronaut Zhai Zhigang completes China's first spacewalk during the country's third manned space mission, Shenzhou VII.

    Nearly 53,000 Chinese children fall ill after drinking tainted milk, leading Premier Wen Jiabao to apologise for the scandal.
    Global financial crisis

    2008 November - The government announces a $586bn (£370bn) stimulus package to avoid the economy slowing. Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao says the effect of the global financial crisis on China is worse than expected.

    2009 February - Russia and China sign $25bn deal to supply China with oil for next 20 years in exchange for loans.

    Hillary Clinton calls for deeper US-China partnership on first overseas tour as secretary of state.

    2009 July - Scores of people are killed and hundreds injured in the worst ethnic violence in decades as a protest in the restive Xinjiang region turns violent.

    First sign of relaxation of strictly enforced one-child policy, as officials in Shanghai urge parents to have a second child in effort to counter effects of ageing population.

    Leaders of China and Taiwan exchange direct messages for the first time in more than 60 years.

    2009 October - China stages mass celebrations to mark 60 years since the Communist Party came to power.

    Six men are sentenced to death for involvement in ethnic violence in Xinjiang.

    2009 December - China executes Briton Akmal Shaikh for drug dealing, despite pleas for clemency from the British government.
    Tensions with US, Japan

    2010 January - China posts a 17.7% rise in exports in December, suggesting it has overtaken Germany as the world's biggest exporter.

    The US calls on Beijing to investigate the cyber attacks, saying China has tightened censorship. China condemns US criticism of its internet controls.

    2010 March - The web giant Google ends its compliance with Chinese internet censorship and starts re-directing web searches to a Hong Kong, in response to cyber attacks on e-mail accounts of human rights activists.

    2010 September - Diplomatic row erupts over Japan's arrest of Chinese trawler crew in disputed waters in East China Sea. Japan later frees the crew but rejects Chinese demands for an apology.

    2010 October - Jailed Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo is awarded Nobel Peace Prize, prompting official protests from Beijing.

    Vice-President Xi Jinping named vice-chairman of powerful Central Military Commission, in a move widely seen as a step towards succeeding President Hu Jintao.
    No.2 world economy

    2011 February - China formally overtakes Japan to become the world's second-largest economy after Tokyo published figures showing a Japanese GDP rise of only four per cent in 2010.

    2011 April - Arrest of Chinese artist and activist Ai Weiwei for "economc crimes" sparks international campaign for his release. He is freed after more than two months' detention.

    2011 July-August - Police kill seven Uighurs suspected of being behind separate attacks in the towns of Horan and Kashgar blamed on separatists.

    2011 November - Authorities present outspoken artist Ai Weiwei with $2.3m tax demand, which is paid by donations from his supporters.

    2011 December - Southern fishing village of Wukan comes to international attention after violent protests by locals against land seizures by officials. Authorities respond by sacking two local officials and agreeing to villagers' key demands.

    China issues new rules requiring users of microblogs to register personal details.

    2012 January - Official figures suggest city dwellers outnumber China's rural population for the first time. Both imports and exports dip, raising concern that the global economic slowdown could be acting as a drag on growth.

    2012 March - Chongqing Communist Party chief Bo Xilai is dismissed on the eve of the Party's ten-yearly leadership change, in the country's biggest political scandal for years. His wife is placed under investigations over the death of British businessman Neil Heywood in the city in November.

    2012 April - China ups the limit within which the yuan currency can fluctuate to 1% in trading against the US dollar, from 0.5%. The US welcomes the move, as it has been pressing China to let the yuan appreciate.

    BBC News - China profile - Timeline
     
  5. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    The above is an excellent time-line of China for reference.
     
  6. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    Historical Equation with Tibet

    Historical Overview

    A Historical Overview of Tibet by Michael Van Walt Praag

    The Tibetan Government-in-Exile, headed by His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Tibet’s exiled head of state and spiritual leader, has consistently held that Tibet has been under illegal Chinese occupation since China invaded the independent state in 1949/50. The People’s Republic of China (PRC) insists that its relation with Tibet is purely an internal affair, because Tibet is and has been for centuries an integral part of China. The question of Tibet’s status is essentially a legal question, albeit one of immediate political relevance.

    The PRC makes no claim to sovereign rights over Tibet as a result of its military subjugation and occupation of Tibet following its armed invasion in 1949/50. Indeed, the PRC could hardly make that claim, since it categorically rejects as illegal claims to sovereignty put forward by other states based on conquest, occupation, or the imposition of unequal treaties. Instead, the PRC bases its claim to Tibet solely on the theory that Tibet became an integral part of China 700 years ago.

    Early History

    Although the history of the Tibetan state started in 127 B.C., with the establishment of the Yarlung Dynasty, the country as we know it was first unified in the 7th Century A.D., under King Songtsen Gampo and his successors. Tibet was one of the mightiest powers of Asia for the three centuries that followed, as a pillar inscription at the foot of the Potala Palace in Lhasa and Chinese Tang histories of the period confirm.

    A formal peace treaty concluded between China and Tibet in 821/823 demarcated the borders between the two countries and ensured that, “Tibetans shall be happy in Tibet and Chinese shall be happy in China.”

    Mongol Influence

    As Genghis Khan’s Mongol Empire expanded towards Europe in the West and China in the East in the 13th Century, Tibetan leaders of the powerful Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism concluded an agreement with the Mongol rulers in order to avoid the conquest of Tibet. The Tibetan Lamas promised political loyalty and religious blessings and teachings in exchange for patronage and protection. The religious relationship became so important that when, decades later, Kublai Khan conquered China and established the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368), he invited the Sakya Lama to become the Imperial Perceptor (sic) and supreme pontiff of his empire.

    The relationship that developed and continues to exist into the 20th Century between the Mongols and Tibetans was a reflection of the close racial, cultural, and especially religious affinity between the two Central Asian peoples. The Mongol Empire was a world empire and, whatever the relationship between its rulers and the Tibetans, the Mongols never integrated the administration of Tibet and China or appended Tibet to China in any manner. Tibet broke political ties with the Yuan emperor in 1350, before China regained its independence from the Mongols. Not until the 18th Century did Tibet again come under a degree of foreign influence.

    Relations with Manchu, Gorkha and British Neighbors

    Tibet developed no ties with the Chinese Ming Dynasty (1386-1644). On the other hand, the Dalai Lama, who established his sovereign rule over Tibet with the help of a Mongol patron in 1642, did develop close religious ties with the Manchu emperors, who conquered China and established the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). The Dalai Lama agreed to become the spiritual guide of the Manchu emperor, and accepted patronage and protection in exchange. This “priest-patron” relationship (known in Tibetan as Choe-Yoen), which the Dalai Lama also maintained with some Mongol princes and Tibetan nobles, was the only formal tie that existed between the Tibetans and Manchus during the Qing Dynasty. It did not, in itself, affect Tibet’s independence.

    On the political level, some powerful Manchu emperors succeded in exerting a degree of influence over Tibet. Thus, between 1720 and 1792, Emperors Kangxi, Yong Zhen, and Qianlong sent imperial troops to Tibet four times to protect the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan people from foreign invasions by Mongols and Gorkhas or from internal unrest. These expeditions provided the Emperor with the means for establishing influence in Tibet. He sent representatives to the Tibetan capital, Lhasa, some of whom successfully exercised their influence, in his name, over the Tibetan Government, particularly with respect to the conduct of foreign relations. At the height of Manchu power, which lasted a few decades, the situation was not unlike that which can exist between a superpower and a satellite or protectorate, and therefore one which, though politically significant, does not extinguish the independent existence of the weaker state. Tibet was never incorporated into the Manchu Empire, much less China, and it continued to conduct its relations with neighboring states largely on its own.ective by the time the British briefly invaded Lhasa and concluded a bilateral treaty with Tibet, the Lhasa Convention, in 1904. Despite this loss of influence, the imperial government in Peking continued to claim some authority over Tibet, particularly with respect to its international relations, an authority which the British imperial government termed “suzerianity” in its dealings with Peking and St. Petersburg, Russia. Chinese imperial armies tried to reassert actual influence in 1910 by invading the country and occupying Lhasa. Following the 1911 revolution in China and the overthrow of the Manchu Empire, the troops surrendered to the Tibetan army and were repatriated under a Sino-Tibetan peace accord. The Dalai Lama reasserted Tibet’s full independence internally, by issuing a proclamation, and externally in communications to foreign rulers and in a treaty with Mongolia.

    Tibet in the 20th Century

    Tibet’s status following the expulsion of Manchu troops is not subject to serious dispute. Whatever ties existed between the Dalai Lamas and the Manchu emperors of the Qing Dynasty were extinguished with the fall of that empire and dynasty. From 1911 to 1950, Tibet successfully avoided undue foreign influence and behaved in every respect as a fully independent state.

    Tibet maintained diplomatic relations with Nepal, Bhutan, Britain, and later with independent India. Relations with China remained strained.

    The Chinese waged a border war with Tibet while formally urging Tibet to “join” the Chinese Republic, claiming all along to the world that Tibet was one of China’s five races. In an effort to reduce Sino-Tibetan tensions, the British convened a tripartite conference in Simla in 1913 where the representatives of the three states met on equal terms. As the British delegate reminded his Chinese counterpart, Tibet entered into the conference as an “independent nation recognizing no allegiance to China.” The conference was unsuccessful in that it did not resolve the differences between Tibet and China. It was, nevertheless, significant in that Anglo-Tibetan friendship was reaffirmed with the conclusion of bilateral trade and border agreements. In a Joint Declaration, Great Britain and Tibet bound themselves not to recognize Chinese suzerainty or other special rights in Tibet unless China signed the draft Simla Convention which would have guaranteed Tibet’s greater borders, its territorial integrity and full autonomy. China never signed the Convention, however, leaving the terms of the Joint Declaration in full force.

    Tibet conducted its international relations primarily by dealing with the British, Chinese, Nepalese, and Bhutanese diplomatic missions in Lhasa, but also through government delegations traveling abroad. When India became independent, the British mission in Lhasa was replaced by an Indian one. During World War II Tibet remained neutral, despite combined pressure from the United States, Great Britain, and China to allow passage of raw materials through Tibet.

    Tibet never maintained extensive international relations, but those countries with whom it did maintain relations treated Tibet as they would any sovereign state. Its international status was no different from, say, that of Nepal. Thus, when Nepal applied for membership in the United Nations in 1949, it cited its treaty and diplomatic relations with Tibet to demonstrate its full international personality.

    The Invasion of Tibet

    The turning point in Tibet’s history came in 1949, when the People’s Liberation Army of the PRC first crossed into Tibet. After defeating the small Tibetan army and occupying half the country, the Chinese government imposed the so-called “17-Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet” on the Tibetan government in 1951. Because it was signed under duress, the agreement lacked validity under international law. The presence of 40,000 troops in Tibet, the threat of an immediate occupation of Lhasa, and the prospect of the total obliteration of the Tibetan state left Tibetans little choice.

    As open resistance to the Chinese occupation escalated, particularly in Eastern Tibet, the Chinese repression, which included the destruction of religious buildings and the imprisonment of monks and other community leaders increased dramatically. By 1959, popular uprisings culminated in massive demonstrations in Lhasa. By the time China crushed the uprising, 87,000 Tibetans were dead in the Lhasa region alone, and the Dalai Lama had fled to India.

    In 1963 the Dalai Lama promulgated a constitution for a democratic Tibet. It has been successfully implemented, to the extent possible, by the Government-in-exile.

    Conclusion

    In the course of Tibet’s 2,000-year history, the country came under a degree of foreign influence only for short periods of time in the 13th and the 18th centuries. Few independent countries today can claim as impressive a record. As the ambassador of Ireland at the UN remarked during the General Assembly debates on the question of Tibet, “[for thousands of years, or for a couple of thousands of years at any rate, [Tibet) was as free and fully in control of its own affairs as any nation in this Assembly, and a thousand times more free to look after its own affairs than many of the nations here.”

    Numerous other countries made statements in the course of the UN debates that reflected similar recognition of Tibet’s independent status. Thus, for example, the delegate from the Philippines declared, “It is clear that on the eve of the invasion in 1950, Tibet was not under the rule of any foreign country.” The delegate from Thailand reminded the assembly that the majority of states “refute the contention that Tibet is part of China.” The United States joined most other UN members in condemning Chinese aggression and invasion of Tibet. In 1959, 1960, and 1961, the UN General Assembly passed resolutions (1353 (XIV), 1723 (xvi), and 2079 (XX)) condemning Chinese human rights abuses in Tibet and calling on that country to respect the fundamental freedoms of the Tibetan people, including their right to self-determination.

    From a legal stand point, Tibet has to this day not lost its statehood. It is an independent state under illegal occupation. Neither China’s military invasion nor the continuing occupation by the PLA has transferred the sovereignty of Tibet to China. As pointed out earlier, the Chinese government has never claimed to have acquired sovereignty over Tibet by conquest. Indeed, China recognizes that the use or threat of force (outside the exceptional circumstances provided for in the UN Charte), the imposition of an unequal treaty or the continued illegal occupation of a country can never grant an invader legal title to territory. Its claims are based solely on the alleged subjection of Tibet to a few of China’s strongest foreign rulers in the thirteenth and eighteenth centuries.

    How can China-one of most ardent opponents of imperialism and colonialism-defend its continued presence in Tibet against the wishes of the Tibetan people by citing Mongol and Manchu imperialism and its own colonial policies as justification?

    Historical Overview |
     
  7. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    Tibet was independent at the time of Communist China's invasion. The country possessed all conditions of statehood under international law. There was a defined territory, a population inhabiting that territory, and a functioning government exercising authority over that territory and possessing the ability to enter into international relations.
    China contends that Tibet did not maintain international relations independently of China and that no country recognized Tibet's independence. This is not true. Although Tibet chose not to develop extensive international relations, following an isolationist policy for much of its history, it did maintain bilateral relations with countries in the region by whom it was, indeed, recognized.

    A study of Tibet's history reveals that, contrary to Chinese Communist claims, Tibet at no time became an integral part of China. It is not disputed that at different times Tibet exercised influence on or came under the influence of its neighbors. It would be hard to find any state in the world today that has not been subjected to foreign domination or influence for some part of its history. Tibet, however, was never colonized or annexed through the use of force.

    Thus today, despite more than 40 years of occupation, Tibet is an independent country under illegal occupation. This fact has been recognized by many, including the US Congress and the Parliament of Australia in 1992. The Tibetan people are today one of the best examples of a people with rights to self-determination. Recent prestigious international law conferences have stressed the need for early realization of the Tibetan people's right to self-determination. The Dalai Lama has called on China to agree to the holding of an internationally supervised plebiscite so Tibetans can express their wishes in accordance with their rights, through democratic means. This China has, to date, rejected.

    The Invasion and Illegal Annexation of Tibet 1949-1951

    The Chinese government claims the so-called "17-Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet," signed in 1951, after the defeat of the small Tibetan army, shows that Tibetans not only agreed to, but actually invited Chinese Communist troops to "liberate" Tibet. Facts show the Tibetan government was coerced into accepting the document drafted by China and imposed upon the Tibetan negotiators under threat of all-out military conquest. Treaties imposed by threat or the use of force upon a country are not valid under international law and cannot, therefore, serve to legitimize an otherwise illegal invasion of territory. China, in fact, believes all unequal treaties and agreements to be invalid. There can hardly be a better example of an unequal "agreement" than the 1951 Tibetan-Chinese "17-Point" treaty.

    ABOUT TIBET
     
  8. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    So, does the world belong to China?

    Unequal treaties and fairy tale maps being the bottom line and more so when they shout from the rooftops of unequal treaties?
     
  9. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    Are these unequal treaties?

    Treaty of Nanjing 南京條約 1842 British Empire
    Treaty of the Bogue 虎門條約 1843 British Empire
    Treaty of Wanghia 中美望廈條約 1844 United States
    Treaty of Whampoa 黃埔條約 1844 France French colonial empire
    Treaty of Canton 中瑞廣州條約 1847 United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway
    Treaty of Kulja 中俄伊犁塔爾巴哈台通商章程 1851 Russian Empire
    Treaty of Aigun 璦琿條約 1858 Russian Empire
    Treaty of Tientsin 天津條約 1858 France French colonial empire, British Empire, Russian Empire, United States
    Convention of Peking 北京條約 1860 British Empire, France French colonial empire, Russian Empire
    Treaty of Tientsin 中德通商條約 1861 Prussia, German Confederation
    Chefoo Convention 煙台條約 1876 British Empire
    Treaty of Saint Petersburg 伊犁條約 1881 Russian Empire
    Treaty of Tientsin (1885) 中法新約 1885 France French colonial empire
    Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking 中葡北京條約 1887 Portugal Kingdom of Portugal
    Treaty of Shimonoseki (Treaty of Maguan) 馬關條約 1895 Empire of Japan
    Li-Lobanov Treaty 中俄密约 1896 Russian Empire
    Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory 展拓香港界址專條 1898 British Empire
    Guangzhouwan Leased Terrority 廣州灣租界條約 1899 France French colonial empire
    Boxer Protocol 辛丑條約 1901 British Empire, United States, Empire of Japan, Russian Empire, France French colonial empire, German Empire, Kingdom of Italy, Austria-Hungary, Kingdom of Belgium, Kingdom of Spain, Kingdom of the Netherlands
    Simla Accord 西姆拉條約 1914 British Empire
    Twenty-One Demands 二十一條 1915 Empire of Japan
    Tanggu Truce 塘沽協定 1933 Empire of Japan


    If so how?

    And if they are, what about Tibet?

    Or the suppression of the 'barbarian' 100 Yues?
     
  10. asianobserve

    asianobserve Elite Member Elite Member

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    "Anti-colonialism" is the refuge of countries that can't get their acts together. Countries preaching this mantra are often still underdeveloped or cannot get out of the influence of more powerful country (for various reasons like poor/corrupt local leaders, lack of education/maturity of local population...). BUt once this countries get their acts together and becomes more confident of themselves then they immediately become the monsters they once preached against. This is just one proof that we humans are still animals, and like animals we always naturally tend to dominate our peers if we can.
     
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  11. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    All this goes to show that the China continue to be expansionist, imperialist, land grabbing power in the line of the Nazi Lebensraum policy, but under the cloak of Peaceful Rise and camouflaged Communism with 'cinematic fade' to capitalism controlled by the same old Communist mafia!

    Champions of opportunism and charade!
     
  12. Pokemon

    Pokemon New Member

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    Offcourse the one who is weaker shouts more about equality, rights and respect.

    Once comes power, all vanish, and the superiority complex take over to push imperialism and dictatorship.
     
  13. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    Well said.

    We are seeing it 'live' in the Asia Pacific Rim.
     
  14. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    One may dislike China (and it is not dislike the Chinese), but one has to grant it to their Govt that they have fooled the world with their chicanery to become a force in being economically and militarily, while the world got lulled by their soft soap mush!

    They are on the springboard to world domination.

    Take care and be prepared!
     
  15. s002wjh

    s002wjh Senior Member Senior Member

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    tibet was conquered during yuan dynasty, in ming and qing dyansty, tibet was more like puppet state. china invade tibet in 50s and now its part of china, not much can be done now, just like american-indian.
    i wouldn't call them expansionist since they never expand like the british empire, US, japan in their 5000 years of history. the only dispute they have is really with its neighbor over SCS, dayo island, india/china border, taiwan. only time will tell if they will behave like japan in wwii, so far they have not, partially due to they are concentrating on economy, internal stuff, partially due to US is still the superpower.
     
  16. nrj

    nrj Stars and Ambassadors Stars and Ambassadors

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    China is a land grabber, look at their claims on Arunachal.

    If thats not expansionism, what is it?
     
  17. s002wjh

    s002wjh Senior Member Senior Member

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    result of war, boarder dispute, alot country have that. expansionism is someone like british empire, japan etc etc, when clearly the terroritory is NOT part of their terroritory, people live there have no association with japanese what so ever, focibily occupied the place. you could argue china invasion of tibet was expansionism in the 50s. but i wouldn't call china as expansionism just yet, unless they invade and occupy some other countries . not ever border dispute, war on foreign land can be labelled as expansionist.

    through out the history of china, only yuan dynasty can be said was expansionist. most dynasty that was control by han stay in china, didn't even bother to occupied korea, they even build a wall to keep mongol away from interior china. thats not how expansionist work
     
  18. nrj

    nrj Stars and Ambassadors Stars and Ambassadors

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    Cut the crap & tell me why China claims over Arunachal Pradesh which is recognized state of India?

    Why the hell PRC nutheads have problem with Indian Defence Minister visiting his own state?

    PRC & its worshippers are bunch of deluded losers who daydream their wonderland.
     
  19. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    Chinese Imperialism and Expansionism in animated form for easy comprhension.




    [​IMG]
     
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  20. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    On the Qing Dynasty Expansion

    This is basically to indicate the Chinese insatiable desire to capture more and more land and its failures.


    Southwards Chinese Expansion
    Attempted Imperial Aggrandisement in the Qing Dynasty


    It is commonly said that China has made no attempt to exapnd its territory for many centuries - commonly said but incorrect. The Qing Dynasty saw a number of attempts.

    The idea that the Chinese state wishes to expand its territory has received a great deal of attention over the years, especially recently as its phenomenal economic growth has raised it to the status of a potential superpower. Chinese scholars have frequently stated that there has been no expansion of Chinese territories for centuries and not since the Mongol Conquerors of the Yuan Dynasty have new lands been brought under Chinese control. Indeed, for more than one thousand years, the extent of Chinese territory has remained essentially stable in terms of extent and scope. Particularly with respect to southwards expansion, it is said, China has not increased its reach since the Tang Dynasty and the one thousand year long colonization of Vietnam has never been repeated. This is true in some senses but not entirely true in another. For example, the Mongols were defeated by the Vietnamese at the three battles of Dac Banh, thanks to their ability to seal of the harbour with chains and stakes and commence a form of early guerrilla warfare. Yet this has not been the only attempt to move southwards in one form or another.

    Historically, the relation with states on the southern border has led to the permanent occupation of the lands once known as Yueh Nam, the resistance of Dai Viet (Vietnam), the incorporation in the seventeenth century of Yunnan and of the twentieth century of Tibet (it is possible to debate the dates at which these conquests effectively occurred). However, among these thrusts, there have been numerous attempts to conquer land which have ended in failure. One such effort was the Qing attempt to conquer Myanmar (Burma) launched by the campaign of 1765-70. This has come to be accepted as the most disastrous military campaign launched by the Qing Dynasty – the Chinese army has, in truth, a very long history of failures and disasters (all military forces do). Failures are generally hushed up while successes, however, partial, are generally praised beyond their real meaning.

    In the case of this campaign, the Chinese troops fell afoul of the relentless problems of the terrain and, above all, the disease endemic in the region. Few troops can attack an alien jungle without massive losses from disease and various types of misery and the Qing troops proved this once again. With enormous loss of life, the Chinese withdrew from their attempt at conquest, which was based either on conquest for its own sake/desire to punish recalcitrant Burmese royalty/desire to control important mineral and human resources, according to taste.

    Southwards Chinese Expansion: Attempted Imperial Aggrandisement in the Qing Dynasty | Suite101.com
     
  21. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    Peking Reaches Out: A Study of Chinese Expansionism

    It is common knowledge that in 1959 Mao Zedong said: “Our goal is the whole wide world . .. where we will create a mighty state" and that in 1965 he presented China with the task of “absolutely getting hold of Southeast Asia" in the near future. And today, far from disavowing these and similar statements, Peking uses them as a guide. Politics, propaganda and armed force combine to further Maoist foreign policy doctrines, in a
    range of ploys which extends from historical fabrications and the publication of maps showing the “lost Chinese lands" to armed provocation and outright aggression against neighbouring states......

    A maiden work of this order was Su Yen-tsung’s The General Tendency of the Modification of China’s Borders, [249•22 which was published shortly after the Hsinhai revolution. Coming after it, Hua Chi-yun’s China’s Borders [249•23 gained wide currency. Indeed, its author, possibly the Kuomintang’s leading authority in the field, completed his treatise in the spring of 1930, shortly after the Kuomintang provocations on the Chinese Eastern Railway, the raids on Soviet territory, and the rupture of SovietChinese relations. Hua Chi-yun’s conceptions, which reflected the official moods.

    Hua Chi-yun advocated the thesis of the need to “return” to China the lands it had “lost”. He claimed that “China’s old borders" had embraced vast territories extending from Kamchatka to Singapore and from Lake Balkhash to the Philippines. Korea, Burma, Vietnam, and Bhutan were seen as “conceded tributaries”, which had been within the “old borders”. Considerable tracts of Soviet Far Eastern territory along with the Island of
    Sakhalin, part of Kazakhstan and the Soviet Central Asian republics, sections of Afghan and Indian territory, and the Ryukyu Archipelago were also included among China’s “losses”. The Mongolian People’s Republic was generally ignored as a sovereign state and was designated as within China’s contemporary borders. Maritime boundaries stretched hundreds and thousands of miles away from the mainland, taking in the islands of the East China and South China Seas. The special map appended to the chapter, “Revision of Frontiers and Lost 250 Territories”, illustrated this projected programme of territorial aggrandisement.

    The book examined a set of political, economic, and cultural measures devised to bring about a rapid Sinification of non-Han inhabitants of border territories. Having roots deep in antiquity and the Middle Ages, China’s intercourse with Korea, Siberia, Central Asia,Afghanistan, India, and Vietnam was analysed with the author seeking to prove China’s “historical rights" to the lands beyond its borders. Hua Chi-yun challenged the validity of
    quite a number of border treaties and tried to justify Kuomintang’s claims to the USSR, Burma, and India.

    http://libweb.uoregon.edu/ec/e-asia/read/PRO.pdf


    +++++++++++++


    The above are excerpts.

    Worth reading to see how the Chinese have planned their expansion and how they justify the same.

    It does not matter what is the colour of the cat so long as it catches mice!
     
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