Chanakya

Discussion in 'Defence & Strategic Issues' started by LETHALFORCE, May 18, 2010.

  1. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

    Joined:
    Feb 16, 2009
    Messages:
    20,519
    Likes Received:
    6,520
    http://www.chanakya.com/chanakya.htm

    Chanakya

    CHANAKYA'S EDUCATION

    Rishi Canak named his son as "Chanakya". Being a teacher himself, he knew the importance of education. Taxila was one of the world centers for education. At a very early age little Chanakya started studying Vedas. The Vedas; considered to be the toughest scriptures to study were completely studied and memorized by Chanakya in his infancy. He was attracted to studies in politics. In politics Chanakya’s acumen and shrewdness was visible right from childhood. He was a student of politics right from child hood. Known as a masterful political strategist, He knew how to put his own people in the opposite camp and spy the enemy without his knowledge before destroying him forever. Chanakya was an ace in turning tables in his favor irrespective of the circumstances. He never budged to pressure tactics by the ruthless politicians. In this way after studying religion and politics, he turned his attention to economics, which remained his lifelong friend. "Nitishastra", a treatise on the ideal way of life shows his in depth study of the Indian way of life.

    Life as a student

    Takshashila, (later corrupted as Taxila),one of the topmost centers of education at that time in India became Chanakya’s breeding ground of acquiring knowledge in the practical and theoretical aspect. The teachers were highly knowledgeable who used to teach sons of kings. It is said that a certain teacher had 101 students and all of them were princes! The university at Taxila was well versed in teaching the subjects using the best of practical knowledge acquired by the teachers. The age of entering the university was sixteen. The branches of studies most sought after in around India ranged from law, medicine, warfare and other indigenous forms of learning. The four Vedas, archery, hunting, elephant-lore and 18 arts were taught at the university of Taxila. So prominent was the place where Chanakya received his education that it goes to show the making of the genius. The very requirements of admission filtered out the outlawed and people with lesser credentials.

    After acquiring vast knowledge in various branches of study he wanted everybody to get benefited. He believed in the broadcasting of knowledge and not in the storage of it. So famous was Chanakya in the vicinity of the university that he had many nicknames. He was called variously by different people, namely – Vishnugupta, Kautilya and Chanakya. The whole nation was bewildered by the cleverness and wit of this seemingly small boy who went on to single handedly unify the country with the sheer power of his character. He lived his life working to his capacity in pursuit of his vision of a happy strong and prosperous India.

    Taxila University

    At a time when the Dark Ages were looming large, the existence of a university of Taxila’s grandeur really makes India stand apart way ahead of the European countries who struggled with ignorance and total information blackout. For the Indian subcontinent Taxila stood as a light house of higher knowledge and pride of India. In the present day world, Taxila is situated in Pakistan at a place called Rawalpindi. The university accommodated more than 10,000 students at a time. The university offered courses spanning a period of more than eight years. The students were admitted after graduating from their own countries. Aspiring students opted for elective subjects going for in depth studies in specialized branches of learning. After graduating from the university, the students are recognized as the best scholars in the subcontinent. It became a cultural heritage as time passed. Taxila was the junction where people of different origins mingled with each other and exchanged knowledge of their countries.

    The university was famous as "Taxila" university, named after the city where it was situated. The king and rich people of the region used to donate lavishly for the development of the university. In the religious scriptures also, Taxila is mentioned as the place where the king of snakes, Vasuki selected Taxila for the dissemination of knowledge on earth.

    Here it would be essential to mention briefly the range of subjects taught in the university of Taxila. (1) Science, (2) Philosophy, (3) Ayurveda, (4) Grammar of various languages, (5) Mathematics, (6) Economics, (7) Astrology, (8) Geography, (9) Astronomy, (10) Surgical science, (11) Agricultural sciences, (12) Archery and Ancient and Modern Sciences.

    The university also used to conduct researches on various subjects.

    COMMOTION IN TAXILA

    Gandhar Republic was not able to come out of the shock of the comprehensive defeat at the hands of the province of Porus, when a new contingency starred in the eyes of Taxila. Thousands of refugees poured in Taxila as a result of the widespread attacks of the armies of Alexander. These people were not productive for the state as they didn’t come to Taxila to acquire knowledge or in search of jobs. They didn’t have money or any kind of assets to buy themselves the essential commodities. To resolve the problem, a meeting was convened by the rulers of the neighboring countries and the king of Taxila. The knowledgeable people who gathered to give their opinions on the problem faced by Taxila, gave out their suggestions. At the end of the meeting, it was decided that the refugees must be given cover under humanitarian grounds. So, in line with the decision taken, a stretch of land outside Taxila was allotted for the refugees. They were allowed to enter Taxila after proving their identity with the sentry. In this way what appeared to be a calamity was appeased without much ado. The incident was just a precursor to a series of events which reverberated across India as a result
    of the attacks of Alexander.

    ...MOVE TOWARDS PATLIPUTRA

    Though Chanakya was just a professor in the Taxila University which seemed to be far away from the happenings in the country, he actually was able to influence the governments in a big way. His students looked at him as an ideal teacher who inspired and exemplified great knowledge. His students respected him and were ready to fight at any moment at his orders. Two of his students who have been mentioned at various instances were Bhadrabhatt and Purushdutt. In the events that unfolded in the life of Chanakya, these two played a pivotal role in the achievement of his goals. It is rumored that they acted as spies for Chanakya, collecting information about his enemies.

    Somehow, Chanakya came to know that there was a chance of foreign invasion. Europe’s great warrior Salukes was readying his armies to attack the weakened republics of India. There were grave designs threatening the unity and integrity of the nation. In such a scenario the ruler of Patliputra, Mahanand was squeezing the common man of his wealth with an object of enriching his own exchequer. Chanakya was aware of the internal and external threats of the country. On the one hand, the rulers of the neighboring countries were looking for the slightest of chance to annex the prosperous regions of the country and on the other hand, foreign invaders started moving towards the country with an expectation of easily smothering the country. These thoughts gave Chanakya sleepless nights. He envisioned his country clutched in the chains of slavery and defeated because of internal squabbles and differences. So he decided on the historical day, thus saying,

    "Now the time has come to leave the university. The scrupulous rulers of the country must be uprooted and there is a need to strengthen the country politically and economically. My first and foremost duty is to save the country of the foreign invaders and salvage this dangerous proposition."

    With these thoughts in mind, he left Taxila University for Patliputra which paved the way for watershed changes in the politics of India and Patliputra.

    PATLIPUTRA – THE CITY OF FORTUNES.

    Patliputra, (presently known as Patna) has been historically a very important city politically and strategically. Like Delhi, Patliputra has seen the ups and downs of development and great reversals. The well known Chinese traveler Fahian, who visited the city in 399 BC described it as prosperous city endowed with rich natural resources. At the same time, another Chinese traveler Huen sang described it as a city of rubbles and ruins.

    Shishunagvanshi established the city on the southern bank of the Ganges. It was addressed with different names at different times. To. illustrate a few names, Pushpapur, Pushpanagar, Patliputra and Patna.

    The city was industrious in producing essential commodities and luxurious goods for the rich. When Chanakya entered the city, it was known for respecting knowledgeable people and scholars. The intellectuals from across the country were warmly invited for the intercourse of new ideas and development of the state. It was virtually the city of fortunes as it recognized the true talent and rewarded richly for the work done by an individual. No wonder Chanakya decided to start his glorious campaign from Patliputra.

    "I WILL DESTROY YOU"

    Dhanananda, the ruler of Patliputra was unscrupulous and cruel by nature. He was always busy gathering money without thinking about consequences. He was always dissatisfied with the amount of money he had. Collecting taxes exorbitantly, he was a villain in the public eye. There was public outrage on the taxes which were collected on unwanted things. The main aim of collecting taxes was to serve the selfish interests of the king. There were taxes on hides, tax on wood and tax even on stone! The amount of money which Dhanananda had was unimaginable.

    When Chanakya arrived at Patliputra, there was a change in the way he ran his kingdom. He gave gifts to the poor and was on the way of becoming lenient in administration. He had formed a trust or committee to administer his gifts and charities. The committee was headed by scholars and influential people of the society. It is said that the president had the powers to make up to ten million gold coins.

    Since Chanakya was a great scholar from Taxila, he was included in the committee for charity. Chanakya later on became the president of the ‘Sungha’ (Trust). The Sungha used to help the king in the distribution of the money allotted for charity to the different sections of the society. In the process of delegation of the funds for charity, the president of the trust had to meet the king frequently. When Chanakya met the king for the first time, he was disgusted at the ugly appearance of Chanakya. As time passed he developed contempt for Chanakya. There was no refinement in words and conduct. To increase the fire between Dhanananda and Chanakya, the courtiers dissuaded the king from having a cordial relationship with Chanakya. Chanakya acted like a thorough professional and avoided praising the king. He always spoke bluntly and tersely. The king did not like the way Chanakya behaved with him. The king removed Chanakya from the post of president without any reasons. Chanakya was enraged at the proposition of being exploited by the less knowledgeable king. So, he erupted like a volcano on the king, and said, " Arrogance in you has eroded the respect which I had for you. You have removed me from the presidentship for no fault of mine. You can’t act in a way detrimental to the demeanor of a king. You think there is none to question you? You have removed me from my rightful place and I will dethrone you !"

    CHANAKYA MEETS CHANDRAGUPTA

    Just after getting humiliated from the king, Chanakya scampered through the streets of Patliputra. In a hurried walk, he stumbled upon a stump of grass and was about to fall. Chanakya the great scholar had his own style of handling things. He looked at the roots of the grass and quickly got into action. Though he was angry, he never let his anger to get out of control. He directed the anger in the right direction. Calmly, he sat down in the burning sun, removed that grass from the roots from the earth. After making sure that not even a single strand of grass is left, he resumed his journey.

    While Chanakya was engrossed in removing the grass from the ground, a young man was closely watching the act of Chanakya. The young man was Chandragupta, the would be emperor of the Mauryan Empire. He looked bright. Looking at the determination of Chanakya, he was impressed and wanted to talk to the knowledgeable man.

    He went to Chanakya, addressed him respectfully, and took him into the choultry. Chanakya asked him about his family background beginning his talk by asking, "Who are you? You seem to be worried."

    The young man stepped forward with great reverence and said, "Sir, my name is Chandragupta. Yes, you are correct I am in great trouble but should I trouble you with my worries?"

    Chanakya calmed down the young man by saying, "You can tell me about your troubles with freewill and without any ambiguities. If I am capable enough, I’ll definitely help you."

    "I am the grandson of king Sarvarthasiddhi, He had two wives, Sunandadevi and Muradevi. Sunanda got nine sons called the Navanandas. Mura, had only one which was my father. The Nandas tried to kill my father time and again. We were more than hundred brothers. The Nandas out of jealousy, tried to kill all of us. Somehow I survived and I am totally disgusted with my life. I want to take revenge on the Nandas who are ruling over the country presently."

    Chanakya who was freshly wounded by the Nandas found a companion to destroy the distraught king. Chanakya was greatly moved by the tale of woe. He was emotionally charged listening to the story of Chandragupta and vowed to destroy the Nandas and get Chandragupta his rightful place as a king of Patliputra. Chanakya said "I will get you the kingship, Chandragupta. From that day on Chanakya and Chandragupta worked in tandem to destroy the corrupt and unscrupulous rule of the Nandas.

    Chandragupta has not been well documented. The place of birth, family background and several details regarding his life are not available. Several things have been said and written about his family and parents. Probably, he belonged to the Moria community. He might have got the name Chandragupta Maurya afterwards and his royal lineage was known as the Maurya dynasty. His mother was perhaps the daughter of a village headman. His father was the king of a forest area called Pippatavana, who died in a war. Chandragupta came to Patliputra along with his mother.

    As a boy Chandragupta was a born leader. Even as a boy, he was accepted as a leader by all. As a boy he used to mimic the king’ court. His bravery and shrewdness were visible right from childhood. As Chanakya was moving along the streets of Patliputra, he saw little Chandragupta enacting the king. Sitting on the large throne, the little boy shouted against injustice and corrupt practices of the kings and people in general. Looking at the bright face of Chandragupta, he was impressed at the intellect and wisdom in the boy’s voice. For seven or eight years Chandragupta had his education there, and that too with selected teachers shortlisted by Chanakya himself. The art of warfare and the art of governance were mastered by Chandragupta with equal expertise.

    THE GREEK INVADER

    The relationship between Chandragupta and Chanakya bloomed through the years developing into a strong force for their enemies. Most of the historical events took place right under the eyes of Chanakya and Chandragupta. The troops of Alexander and the umpteen number of invaders who ravaged the subcontinent for decades around India. It is said that Chandragupta met Alexander. The bold and arrogant talk by Chandragupta enraged Alexander as a result of which Chandragupta was arrested. Chanakya’s training to Chandragupta was over by now and he thought it to be the right occasion to let Chandragupta taste the practical aspect of warfare. Chanakya closely observed the movement and strategies employed by Alexander. He also became aware of the weaknesses of the Indian rulers.

    FREEDOM FROM THE GREEKS

    The rustic boy that Chandragupta was, now had matured into a sound military commander. The source of strength for Chandragupta and his army was the power of mind and the towering personality of Chanakya. In that war of independence for northern India, Chandragupta was the physical instrument, while its thinking brain was Chanakya.

    The deterioration of the prowess of Alexander happened because of the weakening of Satraps or the commanding officers. Niccosar, a Satrap was killed even when Alexander was alive. Another formidable Satrap called Philip, was killed weakening Alexander like never before. After Alexander’s death in Babylon, all his Satraps were either killed or dislodged , one by one. Alexander’s lieutenants divided his empire among themselves in 321 BC. No realm east of the Indus – the River Sindhu was mentioned in that settlement. It meant that the Greeks themselves had accepted that this region had gone out of their rule.

    DEFEAT OF THE NANDA KING

    Before defeating the Nandas, Chanakya had to employ various strategies before victory. Chanakya firstly tested the policy of attacking the core of the city. The policy met with defeats again and again. With the change in strategy, Chanakya and Chandragupta began the attack on the borders of the Magadha Empire. Again there were mistakes. The troops were not stationed in the areas conquered. So when they marched forward, the people of the conquered areas joined together again and encircled their army. Thus those who had been defeated had to be fought again and again

    Chandragupta and Chanakya learnt lessons from these mistakes. They now stationed troops in the conquered regions. So those enemies would not raise and cause any trouble. Chanakya with his cleverness had earlier won the friendship of king Parvataka (or Porus Second). Now Parvataka, his brother Vairochaka and son Malayeketu came with their armies to help them. The Nanda king had the support of a big army. The other equally important support was the guidance of his very able minister, Amatya Rakshasa. This minister was very intelligent and had unlimited loyalty to the king. Chanakya knew that getting Amatya out of his way was the only way of defeating King Nanda. Chanakya devised a plan which involved planting of spies in the enemy camp. In a very short span of time, the weaknesses of the Nandas became visible. Parallely, the Nandas and Amatya Rakshasa made plans to counter any attacks by Chanakya.

    Details are not available regarding the war between the Nandas on the one hand and Chandragupta and Chanakya on the other. But it was a keen and bitter fight. The Nanda king died. His sons and relatives also died. Even Amatya Rakshasa was helpless. Chandragupta was victorious proving the foresight of Chanakya regarding his abilities. The old king and his wife retired to the forest. It is said that after sometime Chanakya had the old king and his wife killed , because he thought that if Amatya Rakshasa made them take a son by the rights of adoption, there would be claimants to the throne. He wanted the lineage of the Nandas should be totally eliminated.

    THE TRUE ASPECT OF CHANAKYA

    The momentous life of Chanakya reminds us of a revengeful saga where the individual is obsessed by the idea of taking revenge. But personal revenge was not the aim of Chanakya. He wanted that the kingdom should be secure and that the administration should go on smoothly, bringing happiness to the people. He thought that there were two ways of ensuring the happiness of the people. Firstly, Amatya Rakshasa had to be made Chandragupta’s minister; Secondly, a book must be written, laying down how a king should conduct himself, how he should protect himself and the kingdom from the enemies, how to ensure law and order, and so on.

    By writing "Arthashastra" and "Nitishastra", Chanakya has become a
    never ending phenomena. He has truly guided the generations with his
    wisdom . It would ideally suit the closing of the life of Chanakya with a
    couple of quotations by Chanakya

    "The secret task of a king is to strive for the welfare of his people incessantly.
    The administration of the kingdom is his religious duty. His greatest gift would
    be to treat all as equals."

    "The happiness of the commoners is the happiness of the king. Their
    welfare is his welfare. A king should never think of his personal interest
    or welfare, but should try to find his joy in the joy of his subjects."

    These words were written 2300 years ago by Chanakya, the expert
    statesman and wise sage. And Chanakya is also another name for
    courage and perseverance.
    ___________________________________


    Who was Chanakya?

    For centuries to come and the centuries that went by, which recorded in history talking of the great men and legendary characters who shaped time through their vision and exemplary actions. Chanakya, perhaps is the only personality who has been accepted and revered as a genius both by Indian and Western scholars. He is a historical milestone in the making of India amidst tremendous upheavals and myriad’s of reversals. Celebrated as a shrewd statesman and a ruthless administrator, he comes across as the greatest of diplomats of the world. He had the guts to speak his heart out even in front of the rulers, which shows his strong inclination to democratic values and the audacity to put his views through. Although, he lived around the third century BC, his ideas and principles show concurrence and validity in the present day world. Politics was his forte. Diplomacy in a politically charged environment shows his self-confidence and the ability to stay calm in trying situations.

    His foresight and wide knowledge coupled with politics of expediency founded the mighty Mauryan Empire in India. He was a great laureate of economics with a glittering intellect to perceive the intricate dynamics of the various economic activities and principles.

    The centuries that succeeded him show distinct effects of his thoughts on the way a kingdom is managed and other facets of economic administration. Even today, one of his maxims on taxation is very much alive and calls for adherence by the governments of the world. According to Chanakya, "Taxation should not be a painful process for the people. There should be leniency and caution while deciding the tax structure. Ideally, governments should collect taxes like a honeybee, which sucks just the right amount of honey from the flower so that both can survive. Taxes should be collected in small and not in large proportions".

    Chanakya, apart from being a man of wisdom and unfailing strategies, propounded Nitishastra, the ideal way of living for every individual of the society. He looked at the country like a person surrounded by problems. He worked at the total annihilation of problems by the roots. The re-appearance of troubles only shows its growth. His contribution to foreign policy in the present day world is immense. Universities teach his principles to aspiring foreign policy experts showing the infallability of his principles. Chanakya’s art of diplomacy is well known across India and practiced in the areas of defence, strategy formation and foreign relations.

    Quite remarkably, long before Clausewitz came up with the quote, which said "War is only the continuance of state policy by other means", Chanakya had already written it in his book ‘Chanakyaniti’. Most of his views were so farsighted that they appeared to be prophesies. Talking on diverse subjects such as corruption, he commented very rightly, "It’s just as difficult to detect an official’s dishonesty as it is to discover how much water is drunk by the swimming fish".

    As a person, Chanakya has been described variously, as a saint, as a ‘ruthless administrator’, as the ‘king maker’, a devoted nationalist, a selfless ascetic and a person devoid of all morals. He created controversy by saying ‘The ends justify the means’ and the ruler should use any means to attain his goals and his actions required no moral sanctions. All his written works namely, ‘Arthashastra’, ‘Nitishastra’ and ‘Chanakyaniti’ were unique because of their rational approach and an unabashed advocacy of real politic. His views were dimensionally novel. He recommended even espionage and the liberal use of provocative agents as machineries of the state. In politics, he even attested the use of false accusations and killings by a king’s secret agent without any ambiguities. The observance of morals and ethics was secondary to the interests of the ruler. Some of his stark views made him into an ambivalent personality for the world.

    This great statesman and philosopher has been often compared to Machiavelli, Aristotle and Plato, exemplifying his potentiality and influential status. He has been criticized for his ruthlessness and trickery and praised for his profound political wisdom. Chanakya, the timeless man, was in pursuit of truth fearlessly 2000 years ago and was proved right with Vivekanand’s words, "Arise, Awake, Sleep not till the goal is reached".


    His Dreams.

    Chanakya envisioned India as a nation which would place itself as the forerunner – politically, economically and socially. His magnum opus, "Arthashatra", depicts in many ways the India of His dreams. When he wrote this volume of epic proportion, the country was ridden in feudalism and closed and self-sufficient economy. The economy based on indigenous ways of production; was in a transitional phase, moving towards the advanced aspects of distribution and production. Culture and regional politics directed the way in which trade was done. The main activities of the economy were agriculture, cattle rearing and commerce. Among the three, Chanakya considered agriculture to be the most important constituent of the economy. It’s a fact today that the Indian economy of today is an agro based one. Covering various topics on administration, politics and economy, it is a book of law and a treatise on running a country which is relevant even today.

    People who think that the society in which we live will remain the same; are dissuading themselves of the truth. Society is a complex and dynamic system changing constantly leaving those people behind who say no to change. Broadly speaking, Chanakya dreamt of a country reaching the following levels of development in terms of ideologies and social and economic development:

    • A self sufficient economy which is not dependent on foreign trade.
    • An egalitarian society where there are equal opportunities for all.
    • Establishment of new colonies for the augmentation of resources. He also advocated the development of the already annexed colonies. His imperialistic views can be interpreted as the development of natural and man made resources.
    • According to Chanakya, the efficient management of land is essential for the development of resources. It is essential that the state keeps an eye on the occupation of excess land by the landlords and unauthorized use of land. Ideally the state should monitor the most important and vital resource – Land.
    • The state should take care of agriculture at all times. Government machinery should be directed towards the implementation of projects aimed at supporting and nurturing the various processes; beginning from sowing of seeds to harvest.
    • The nation should envisage to construct forts and cities. These complexes would protect the country from invasions and provide internal security. The cities would act as giant markets increasing the revenue of the state.
    • Internal trade was more important to Chanakya than external trade. At each point of the entry of goods, a minimal amount of tax should be collected. The state should collect taxes at a bare minimum level, so that there is no chance of tax evasion.
    • Laws of the state should be the same for all, irrespective of the person who is involved in the case. Destitute women should be protected by the society because they are the result of social exploitation and the uncouth behavior of men.
    • Security of the citizens at peace time is very important because state is the only savior of the men and women who get affected only because of the negligence of the state. Antisocial elements should be kept under check along with the spies who may enter the country at any time.
    • Chanakya envisioned a society where the people are not running behind material pleasures. Control over the sense organs is essential for success in any endeavor. Spiritual development is essential for the internal strength and character of the individual. Material pleasures and achievements are always secondary to the spiritual development of the society and country at large.
    ___________________________________

    SRI CHANAKYA NITI-SASTRA
    THE POLITICAL ETHICS OF CHANAKYA PANDIT
    By Miles Davis (Patita Pavana dasa)

    About 2300 years ago the Greek conqueror Alexander the Great invaded the Indian sub-continent. His offensive upon the land's patchwork of small Hindu empires proved to be highly successful due to the disunity of the petty rulers. It was Chanakya Pandit who, feeling deeply distressed at heart, searched for and discovered a qualified leader in the person of Chandragupta Maurya. Although a mere dasi-putra, that is, a son of a maidservant by the Magadha King Nanda, Chandragupta was highly intelligent, courageous and physically powerful. Chanakya cared little that by birth he should not have dared to approach the throne. A man of acute discretion, Chanakya desired only that a ruler of extraordinary capabilities be raised to the exalted post of King of Magadha so that the offensive launched by the Yavanas (Greeks) could be repressed.
    It is said that Chanakya had been personally offended by King Nanda and that this powerful brahmana (Brahmin) had vowed to keep his long sikha (hair) unknotted until he saw to the demise of the contemptuous ruler and his drunken princes. True to his oath, it was only after Chanakya Pandit engineered a swift death for the degraded and worthless rulers of the Nanda dynasty that this great Brahmin was able to again tie up his tuft of hair. There are several versions relating the exact way that Chanakya had set about eliminating the Nandas, and it appears historians have found it difficult to separate fact from folk legend as regards to certain specific details.
    After the Nanda downfall, it became easy for Chandragupta to win the support of the Magadha citizens, who responded warmly to their new heroic and handsome young ruler. Kings of neighbouring states rallied under Chandragupta's suzerainty and the last of the Greeks headed by Alexander's general Seleucus were defeated.
    With the dual obstacles of the Nandas and Alexander's troops out of the way, Chanakya Pandit used every political device and intrigue to unite the greater portion of the Indian sub-continent. Under the Prime ministership of Chanakya, King Chandragupta Maurya conquered all the lands up to Iran in the Northwest and down to the extremities of Karnataka or Mysore state in the South (India). It was by his wits alone that this skinny and ill-clad brahmin directed the formation of the greatest Indian empire ever before seen in history (i.e. since the beginning of Kali-yuga). Thus the indigenous Vedic culture of the sacred land of Bharata (India) was protected and the spiritual practices of the Hindus could go on unhampered.
    Although many great savants of the science of niti such as Brihaspati, Shukracharya, Bhartrihari and Vishnusharma have echoed many of these instructions in their own celebrated works*, it is perhaps the way that Chanakya applied his teachings of niti-sastra (political science) that has made him stand out as a significant historical figure. The great Pandit teaches us that lofty ideals can become a certain reality if we intelligently work towards achieving our goal in a determined, progressive and practical manner.
    Dr. R. Shamashastry, the translator of the English version of Kautilya's Artha-Sastra, quotes a prediction from the Vishnu Purana fourth canto, twenty-fourth chapter, regarding the appearance of Chanakya Pandit. This prediction, incidentally, was scribed fifty centuries ago, nearly 2700 years before this political heavyweight and man of destiny was to appear. The prediction informs us: "(First) Mahapadma then his sons - only nine in number - will be the lords of the earth for a hundred years. A brahmana named Kautilya will slay these Nandas. On their death, the Mauryas will enjoy the earth. Kautilya himself will install Chandragupta on the throne. His son will be Bindusara and his son will be Ashokavardhana." Similar prophecies are also repeated in the Bhagavata, Vayu and Matsya Puranas.
    In presenting this work I have traced out and referred to two old English versions of Chanakya Niti-sastra published at the close of the last century. However, these apparently were translated by mere scholars (not devotees) who seem to have missed many subtleties of Chanakya's vast wit and wisdom. Another unedited and unpublished manuscript Chanakya Niti-sastra with both English translation and Latinised transliteration produced by the Vrndavana ISKCON Centre was also referred to. It was however the learned Vaisnava pandit and Sanskrit scholar Sri V. Badarayana Murthy, of the South Indian Madhva School, who helped me see the depth and import of these verses from the original Devanagari. A very few slokas which were perhaps irrelevant or otherwise not useful for our Vaisnava readers have been omitted.
    I have been told that our blessed spiritual master His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada had expressed a desire that Sri Chanakya Niti-sastra be properly translated into English. It is hoped that our present rendering will be at least useful if not instructive to the reader. Let us examine now in a few words on the science of niti, or common sense, from the pen of Srila Bhaktivinoda, the great 19th century devotee-pioneer of the worldwide propagation of Lord Caitanya's divine message.
    Taking the two words "common sense" right up to their highest level, he has written:
    "Man's glory is in common sense,
    Dictating us the grace,
    That man is made to live and love
    The beauteous Heaven's embrace"*3
    In other words, the real goal of niti, indeed the goal of life, is to realise one's eternal position of Krishna consciousness. The Bhagavad-gita confirms Srila Bhaktivinode's view in the final line of its last sloka: dhruva nitir matir mama. A translation of that full verse runs: "(Sanjaya said) Wherever there is Krishna the master of all mystics, and wherever there is Arjuna the supreme archer, there will also be opulence, victory, extraordinary power and morality (niti). That is My opinion."
     
    bhramos and AkhandBharat like this.
  2.  
  3. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

    Joined:
    Feb 16, 2009
    Messages:
    20,519
    Likes Received:
    6,520
    http://www.iloveindia.com/history/ancient-india/maurya-dynasty/chanakya.html

    Chanakya


    One of the greatest figures of wisdom and knowledge in the Indian history is Chanakya. He is estimated to have lived from 350 - 283 B.C. Chanakya is touted as the "Pioneer Economist of India". Chanakya was the adviser and Prime Minister of Emperor Chandragupta. Chanakya was a professor at the University of Takshila (located in present day Pakistan) and was an expert in commerce, warfare, economics, etc. His famous works include Chanakya Neeti, Arthashastra and Neetishastra. Read this biography of Kautilya that covers his interesting life history.

    Chanakya is also known by the name of Kautilya and Vishnugupta as is mentioned in his text. His famous work called Arthashastra is a classic example of statecraft and politics and is read in Europe even today. It basically consists of the principles of politics and how the state works. An able ruler has to be a ruthless leader to make sure that the state works smoothly and efficiently. The legends associated with Chanakya are very interesting and provide a testimony of his greatness.

    Legends:

    * Chanakya When Chanakya was born he had a full set of teeth, which is a sign that he would become a king or an emperor. But since he was born in a Brahmin family, it was considered inappropriate. Thus, his teeth were broken and it was predicted that he would make another person a king and rule through him.
    * Even as a child, Chanakya had the qualities of a born leader. His level of knowledge was beyond children of his age.
    * Chanakya was thrown out of the court of King Nanda as he was a blunt man and spoke his mind clearly. Chanakya swore he would take revenge.
    * Chanakya comes across Chandragupta as a young child. Even at that age, he was a born leader and showed the qualities of an able Emperor. He was the guiding force behind Chandragupta and the vital person who made him an able Emperor.
    * Chanakya adds poison in little amounts daily in Chandragupta's food in order to make him immune to poison, lest some enemy tries to poison him.
    * However Chandragupta was unaware about this and once gave a little food to his wife who was in the ninth month of pregnancy. She didn't survive but Chanakya cut open her belly and took out the baby.
    * This baby grew up to become an able emperor named Bindusara. He had a minister named Subandhu who did not like Chanakya. He told Bindusara that Chanakya had killed his mother.
    * Without assessing facts, Bindusara confronted Chanakya. On knowing the whole story, he felt ashamed at his hasty actions and begged for forgiveness. He asked Subandhu to go and apologize and make Chanakya come back.
    * Subandhu was very cunning and on the pretext of going to apologize to Chanakya, he killed him. Thus, ended the life of a great person like Chanakya just because of political rivalry.
     
  4. rcscwc

    rcscwc Tihar Jail Banned

    Joined:
    Sep 27, 2010
    Messages:
    280
    Likes Received:
    7
    Location:
    Delhi
    His actual name was Vishnugupt. विष्णुगुप्त

    He was known as Chanakya for being son of Chanak. Chanakya means exactly that. चाण्क्य

    He is known as kautilya कौटिल्य, because he dabbled in lots of intrigues, schemings, even assasinations [like that of Porus]. From kutil, कुटिल. The latter two are more well known. But without ANY doubt he was a Brahmin.

    A clear proto type of Machiavelli !!

    PS: I use Baraha, Edit> Copy special>Text (Unicode). Also installed Code200 font, downloadable free]. Easy as cheese. Baraha is the best transliteration s/w I have seen.
     
    Last edited: Sep 29, 2010
  5. pmaitra

    pmaitra Moderator Moderator

    Joined:
    Mar 10, 2009
    Messages:
    31,640
    Likes Received:
    17,119
    Location:
    EST, USA
    From a different source: Humiliated by Dhanananda, Chanakya goes into the wilderness, away from the city and comes to a small hamlet of smlechhas (a reference to typical cities in those times will be useful, which can be found in the Arthashastra). In one such hamlet, he saw a few kids playing; one of them was playing the king and he was administering justice to another kid while other kids looked on. Impressed by his sense of justice, Chanakya adopted the kid playing the king with the permission of his mother. He was to become Chandragupta.

    From a different source: Chandragupta was not in any way related to Dhananada or any of the ruling families. He was a smlechha. Some historians claim that his surname 'Maurya' comes from 'Mura'; however, this claim has been refuted by many historians. One reason is that the nomenclature in those days was largely patriarchal (from Father) or regional as in Gandhari from Gandhara or Kaikei from Kaikeya. The counterclaim is that matriarchal nomenclature had been in existence, such as Aditya which means the son of Aditi and hence, Suryaditya would mean one who is born out of the union of Surya and Aditi. However, in this case, the matriarchal nomenclature does not exist without the patriarchal nomenclature. This is extensively described in the Rig Veda.

    Society in those times as per Arthashashtra composed of the two large groups:
    <1> Aryan Society which was divided into 4 Varnas and who practised Sanatana-Dharma:
    • Brahman: (cognitive from Sanskrit Brahma, which means the ultimate knowledge, and hence persons in possesion of this knowledge were the scholars or Brahmans)
    • Kshatriya: (cognitive from Sanskrit Kshetra, which means a territory, state or land; Kshatriya being the one (or many) responsible for the security of this territory. This is also same as the Greek and Avestan-Persian word Satrapi)
    • Vaishyas: (traders and manufacturers)
    • Shudras: (labourers and farmers)

    AND

    <2> People who lived outside the periphery of these rules (Dharma), and consequently or coincidentally also beyond the boundaries of the cities were the pagans or non-believers of Sanatana-Dharma, called:
    • Smleccha: They were (arguably) the aboriginal inhabitants and did not subscribe to the rules prescribed in the Vedas, Upavedas or Shastras and lived their own lives with their own rules. One politically incorrect way to describe them would be as 'the non-mainstream populations were/are the smlechhas'.

    Chanakya had once exclaimed that "If the intellect of a Brahman and the strength of a Shudra can be combined, the world can be won over!" Nonetheless, he eventually used, not a shudra, but a smlechha to defeat Dhanananda.

    Some points to ponder:
    Historians disagree on Chandragupta's paternal lineage. Some arguments in favour of Chandragupta ancestry belonging to the Kshatriyas is based on the premise that only one born as a Kshatriya can be such a successful military commander. However, they fail to understand the meaning and origin of the word Kshatriya and in-depth study of the Sanskrit language will reveal that Kshatriya is not a position awarded by virtue of birth, but by virtue of training as a consequence of which one gains the ability to protect a Kshetra or a territory. Hence, Kshatriya is a Varna and not a Caste. There have also been claims that incestuous relationships were tolerated in the Mauryan dynasty, which is strictly forbidden in Sanatana-Dharma; however, this is an unsupported claim.

    P.S.: There are other examples than one may read about to clear the confusion about Paternal Lineage, Varna and Caste and their significance in ancient Indian society: e.g. Satyakam Jabala in the Upanishads or Yudhistir's lakeside interview by Yamraj in the Mahabharata.
     
    Last edited: Sep 29, 2010
  6. Rage

    Rage DFI TEAM Stars and Ambassadors

    Joined:
    Feb 23, 2009
    Messages:
    5,407
    Likes Received:
    968
    Words to the wise.

    This is why Chanakya was so famous. He wrote all this shit in the 3rd century B.C., before even Sun Tzu and Machiavelli:


    1) "Learn from the mistakes of others... you can't live long enough to make them all yourselves!!"
    - Chanakya

    2)"A person should not be too honest. Straight trees are cut first and Honest people are screwed first."
    - Chanakya

    3)"Even if a snake is not poisonous, it should pretend to be venomous."
    Chanakya

    4)"The biggest guru-mantra is: Never share your secrets with anybody. It will destroy you."
    - Chanakya

    5)"There is some self-interest behind every friendship. There is no friendship without self-interests. This is the bitter truth."
    - Chanakya

    6)" Before you start some work, always ask yourself three questions - Why am I doing it, What the results might be and Will I be successful. Only when you think deeply and find satisfactory answers to these questions, go ahead."
    - Chanakya

    7)"As soon as the fear approaches near, attack and destroy it."
    - Chanakya

    8)"The world's biggest power is the youth and beauty of a woman."
    - Chanakya

    9)"Once you start a working on something, don't be afraid of failure and don't abandon it. People who work sincerely are the happiest."
    - Chanakya

    11)"God is not present in idols. Your feelings are your god. The soul is his temple."
    - Chanakya

    12) "A man is made great by deeds, not by his birth."
    - Chanakya

    13) "Never make friends with people who are above or below you in status. Such friendships will never give you any happiness."
    - Chanakya

    14) "Treat your kid like a darling for the first five years. For the next five years, scold them. By the time they turn sixteen, treat them like a friend. Your grown up children are your best friends."
    - Chanakya
     
    hit&run likes this.
  7. Rage

    Rage DFI TEAM Stars and Ambassadors

    Joined:
    Feb 23, 2009
    Messages:
    5,407
    Likes Received:
    968
    Absoloutely. I'd call these primal, instinctive, intuitive truths.

    In that respect, Machiavelli was no different. The essence of Machiavelli was this: do whatever your gut feels is right when you think the time is right.

    Sun Tzu, apparently questioned as a historical figure, (alternatively Sun Wu and Sun Bin or a collection of other figures) harped at various times on the same thing. His (or Their) treatises however took this diabolical materialism and applied it to wartime strategy, in that respect they were different.

    Chanakya a.ka. Kautliya a.k.a. Vishnugupt aspired on the broad- politics, warfare, kingdom management and yes, even, household relationships.

    To me though, because he pioneered, or apparently pioneered, these thoughts in written form, he will always remain the first and the truest.

    As for his aphorisms,

    I have to say, the one I agree with the most is:

    8)"The world's biggest power is the youth and beauty of a woman."
    - Chanakya

    Ah, the wars that have been fought and won for the fairer sex!
     
    Last edited: Sep 29, 2010
    hit&run likes this.
  8. hit&run

    hit&run Elite Member Elite Member

    Joined:
    May 29, 2009
    Messages:
    5,492
    Likes Received:
    4,667
     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 10, 2015
  9. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

    Joined:
    Feb 16, 2009
    Messages:
    20,519
    Likes Received:
    6,520
    cross posted

    SASIGUPTA AND THE POISONING OF ALEXANDER

    SASIGUPTA AND THE POISONING OF ALEXANDER

    After Mary Renault called him the Persian boy, scholarly interest in Alexander has noticeably declined in the west. The great Emperor had an acute sense of history and included professional writers in his train, yet it is ironical that great mystery surrounds his last years. Did he die a natural death or at the hands of conspirators? Did he defeat the Prasii as Justin wrote? Did he speak about the Brotherhood of Man in the banquet at Opis as Sir W.W. Tarn[1] held? What was the background of his deification? Historians of Alexander have rarely benefitted from new sources[2] - textual or archaeological, and new writers had to be content with only reinterpretation of old documents but Indian literature now ends the impasse and offers a deep insight into many aspects of his life.
     
  10. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

    Joined:
    Feb 16, 2009
    Messages:
    20,519
    Likes Received:
    6,520
    cross posted

    http://www.1stmuse.com/frames/sasigupta.html

    SASIGUPTA AND THE POISONING OF ALEXANDER

    After Mary Renault called him the Persian boy, scholarly interest in Alexander has noticeably declined in the west. The great Emperor had an acute sense of history and included professional writers in his train, yet it is ironical that great mystery surrounds his last years. Did he die a natural death or at the hands of conspirators? Did he defeat the Prasii as Justin wrote? Did he speak about the Brotherhood of Man in the banquet at Opis as Sir W.W. Tarn[1] held? What was the background of his deification? Historians of Alexander have rarely benefitted from new sources[2] - textual or archaeological, and new writers had to be content with only reinterpretation of old documents but Indian literature now ends the impasse and offers a deep insight into many aspects of his life.



    One new finding - the identification of Megasthenes' Palibothra with Kahnuj in Carmania (instead of Patna in eastern India), calls for sea changes in the ancient history of the Orient. It sheds new light on the strange and exciting adventures of Alexander in Indo-Iran and resolves the mystery of his sudden death and of many other long-standing puzzles. It also belies the claims of E. Badian[3] and P. Green that Alexander was a thoroughgoing tyrant, ruthless and cruel. Badian was unaware that behind Alexander’s clarion call for Brotherhood of Man stands a Prophet of Prophthasia[4] who had once adorned the Persian throne[5] and that the sage Kalanos was the great Buddhist scholar Asvaghosha. The very name Sasigupta tells a story (Sashi=Chandra)[6] that has remained unheard due to the callousness of historians. Palibothra in the north-west brings to the fore a great Sanskrit drama, the Mudrarakshasa, which is widely recognised as a mine of historical information[7]. Most strikingly, the drama shows the great respect of Chandragupta for Alexander, the benevolent hero he himself had managed to poison.


    NEW HINTS FROM SANSKRIT LITERATURE



    Though it remained virtually unknown for centuries, in modern India the Mudrarakshasa is a popular drama, yet its interpretation is still in infancy[8]. To appreciate this court drama it is essential to recreate the ambiance in which it was first staged and realise that it had nothing to do with Bihar. The word Mudra in Sanskrit stands for a signet-ring and the plot is woven around the stealing of the signet-ring of Rakshasa, the minister of the Nandas. This need not immediately remind one of the possession of Alexander’s signet-ring by Perdikkas which was probably stolen[9] and which played a crucial role in the succession battle. In the play Parvataka is killed as he passes under a mechanically operated Torana or coronation arch. Can this be related to the warning of the Chaldeans who came to Alexander and asked him to enter Babylon from the eastern side[10]? Was there a conspiracy to kill Alexander by a crashing gate? After all this was a well-known Babylonian tactic. This may not sound convincing but there is more. Bhagurayana who spies on his master may be an echo of Bagoas the younger who is widely suspected to have been an agent. The name of the bard Stanakalasha is a simple inversion of Callisthenes who was probably caught up in the tragic course of events. There are slanted references to the aging chamberlain who is clearly Permenio. The flaunting of wealth by the treasurer in the play points to Harpalus’ misadventures. Poisoning, Poison-maidens and forged letters have all been discussed in relation to Alexander’s death and these are also the central elements of the play. Rakshasa, after whom the drama is named is clearly Roxyartes or Oxyartes as can be seen from the name of his daughter Roxane. It is more than likely that Tissaraxa, one of Asoka’s wives, was related to Raxasa’s line.



    The other principal character of the play is Chanakya, the minister of Chandragupta. A careful study shows that he was none other than Bagoas the Elder, Prime Minister of Artaxerexes-III Ochus. In the drama Abhayadatta attempts to poison Chandragupta but the plot is detected and he is forced to drink the draught. This is exactly what one reads about Bagoas the Elder’s death – that he attempted to poison Darius-III but was forced to drink his own cup of poison[11]. The name of Darius-III in the Babylonian records is Arta-Sata. This, in fact, is the same as Sarva-Arta-Sata or Sarva-Artha-Siddhi, the name of the Nanda king in the play. Sarva[12] was the name of Shiva, a protector god.



    Classical writers reported[13] that Bagoas poisoned Ochus, gave his flesh to cats and made knife handles with his bones. It is astonishing to find that the Mudrarakshasa also recounts an identical story. Chanakya refused a decent burial to the Nanda king he had poisoned and animals feasted on the flesh of the Nandas[14]. It is uncanny to realise that apart from Chanakya and Chandragupta the play has among its dramatis personae the ghost of Alexander, his wife Roxane, his infant son and his father-in-law Oxyartes. From the drama itself it is difficult to explain why, after all his misdeeds and bungling, Rakshasa was installed as the Prime minister in preference to the mighty Chanakya, but if one remembers that Roxane, his daughter, became the regent after Alexander’s death, this appears only natural. The original inspiration of the Mudrarakshasa may have been derived from Alexander’s foray into dramatics at Patala. It is probable that it was written under the patronage of Sasigupta, once a darling of Alexander. The Mudrarakshasa, which is one of the great Sanskrit Classics, belongs to world literature.


    ALEXANDER AMIDST PEACOCKS



    Palibothra, the Indian capital, was famous for its peacocks; Lane Fox writes, “.. Dhana Nanda’s kingdom could have been set against itself and Alexander might yet have walked among Palimbothra’s peacocks”[15]. Curiously, Arrian wrote that the great Emperor was so charmed by the beauty of peacocks that he decreed the severest penalties against anyone killing it[16]. Where did he come across the majestic bird? Does this fascination lead us to Palibothra? After all Justin wrote that he had defeated the Prasii. A closer examination of the histories of India and Iran shows that this is indeed the truth, but before going into details it is expedient to examine an age-old riddle which has been glossed over by all the writers though its bearing on the history of Alexander is immense. Where exactly was Palibothra?[17]



    In the closing years of the eighteenth century Sir William Jones made the so-called discovery that Palibothra was Patna in eastern India. In Jones’ day history was written on the basis of texts alone and though learned contemporary scholars like Rennell did not agree, the ‘discovery’ was hailed as a landmark in Orientology by popular vote. It is alarming to note that there is no archaeological corroboration of Jones’ hypothesis at all. Excavations at Patna have failed to unearth a single inscription, sculpture or coin of not only the Nandas or Chandragupta but even of Asoka[18]. The famous archaeologist A. Ghosh categorically stated that the history of Patna is based on texts, not archaeology. Kulke and Rothermund also express scepticism about the Jonesian story.[19] Moreover as Wheeler pointed out, urbanisation of Eastern India cannot be traced before the period of Bindusara[20]. It is impossible to visualize the enormous wealth of the Nandas in Patna of the fourth century BC. The absurdity is heightened by the fact that Persian emperors assumed the name Nanda[21] - Darius-II was Nonthos - and that the name Nunudda occurs in the Persepolis fortification tablets. This clearly indicates that Palibothra must have been in the north-west.



    VICTORY OVER THE INDIANS AT KAHNUJ IN CARMANIA



    The relocation of Palibothra throws overboard the entire history of Alexander’s expedition after the revolt at Hyphasis and focusses on another great figure of 4th century BC - Chandragupta. Palibothra in the north-west leads to a sweeping reformulation of the early history of India. Nearly all the historical figures appear to be from the north-west. Gomata of the Behistun inscription must have been Gotama Buddha.[22] Bagapa of Babylon was surely Gotama whose title was Bhagava. Diodotus-1 turns out to be the true Asoka.



    The name Palibothra, which means ‘city of the Bhadras’ (City = Kala, Bala, Pala, Polis etc.) indicates a location in Gedrosia which was the Bhadrasva of the Indian texts. Another hint is in name Batrasasave of an important city in Carmania. This is linked to Palibatra or Palibothra[23]. A clearer hint leading to the exact location of Palibothra is available from Alexander’s history. Owing to Jones’ error the direct implication of Alexander’s famous week-long celebration[24] of “victory over the Indians” at Kahnuj in Gedrosia has been lost. Writers like Bosworth and Badian failed to realise that the victory over the Indians could have been celebrated only at the chief Indian city. In fact, this clearly attests to a Palibothra in the north-west. Numerous other evidences indicate that in the fourth century BC south-eastern Iran was a part of India. V. Elisseeff[25] remarks that from the archaeological viewpoint eastern Iran was closer to India. Vincent Smith agreed with authors like Stephanus and Pliny that Gedrosia and Carmania were within ancient India but due to the blind faith in Jones’ hypothesis the majority of the Indologists have ignored this. Bosworth writes that the victory was celebrated near Khanu or Kahnuj[26]. The name itself shows the absurdity of the Jonesian premise. The name Kanyakubja, which is thought to be synonymous with Kanauj occurs in the Ramayana and certainly dates from an era far earlier than the age of the Maukharis (6th Cent. AD) when Kanauj in eastern India was a great city. Therefore the significance of the presence of another ancient city of the same name in far away Carmania is immense. As Khuvja was the name of Elam, Kanyakubja can be easily seen to be Kahnuj. Incidentally it is in this area that one encounters hoary primogenitors like Manu who ruled Dilmun, Magan and Melukhkha[27]. Palibothra was the chief city of the Indians which suggests that it was only a different name of Kanauj which had a similar position in the Indian texts. Dow in his `History of Hindostan' identified Sandrocottos with Sinsarchund who, according to Firista, ruled from Kanauj.


    REVOLT AT HYPHASIS AND FORMATION OF A CLIQUE



    Through the mist of vague reports and Jonesian misinterpretation it is difficult to recreate the course of events that led to the revolt at Beas which came as a serious jolt to Alexander’s plans. Did the army refuse to fight the Prasii or only to march eastwards? The important point which all the writers miss is that the empire of the Prasii was not in the east as Jones taught but lay westward in the Gedrosia-Carmania-Seistan area[28]. If Alexander had really wanted to move eastward it could not have been to conquer the Prasii. If he had learnt that the fertile plains of the Ganges were only few days march away and wanted to be there for mere expansion of his Empire, he could have expected little resistance. Reluctance of the army cannot have been due to apprehension of the Great strength of the Easterners as Jonesian writers fancied but due to the lack of any tangible political or military gain from the venture. If this was the case then Alexander had to bow down to the wishes of his men and curtail his ambitions. On the other hand if the reluctance of the soldiers and officers was to confront the Prasii it appears sensible enough as the latter were a formidable force to reckon with. However, its military might was certainly overblown by magicians and other secret agents of Chanakya[29] and Chandragupta to frighten the Greek army. As Meroes or Sasigupta had already fought beside Porus, the Prasiian army cannot have been left intact though it could still have been a formidable fighting force. A century later the Jats and other fierce fighters of Seistan under the Surens humbled the mighty Roman army.



    Although the revolt was engendered by genuine misgivings of the soldiers it would be simplistic to not to view it as a part of a grander design. It offers the first glimpses of the formation of a secret clique in which Harpalus probably played a key role. Coenus who acted as a spokesman of the soldiers had taken a leading role in securing the conviction of Philotas. Both he and his brother Cleander, who was later executed by Alexander, were close to Harpalus whose exploits were parodied in the play Agen. However, here the chief orchestrator must have been Bagoas who, together with Sasigupta, conspired with Harpalus, Eumenes, Perdikkas, Seleucus, Apollophanes, Cleander, Philip and others.


    PURSUIT OF MOERIS THROUGH GEDROSIA



    Coming down to the lower Indus area near Brahmanabad, Alexander reached the great city of Pattala in 325BC and found it deserted. Pattala is an echo of Pataliputra and the name Moeris of its ruler again shows the dubious nature of Jones' identification. The absence of any archaeological relic of the Nandas or Chandragupta from eastern India shows that the latter belonged to the north-west. Thus Moeris of Pattala cannot be any other than Chandragupta Maurya. The true objective of the Gedrosian voyage now becomes apparent - Alexander was chasing Chandragupta through the desert. Bosworth’s opinion that ‘stories about Cyrus and Semiramis were later to attract him to the Gedrosian desert’ is based on ignorance. In order to ensure food supplies for his army Alexander had imposed a levy which had adversely affected the local population. Blind to the reality, Badian goes on to compare Alexander with Chengiz Khan.



    Chandragupta is described as the king of Patna by Jonesian historians who have no truck with archaeology. This however did not deter B.M. Barua, one of the greatest scholars on Buddhism, from stating boldly; ‘To me Candragupta was a man of the Uttarapatha or Gandhara if not exactly of Taksashila.’[30] Curiously the Satrap of the Taksashila area under Alexander was another Gupta whose history has been treated in the most perfunctory manner[31]. After capturing the rock fort at Aornos near Taxila Alexander left Sasigupta in command. Sasigupta of Taxila who is first heard of in 327BC is clearly the Chandragupta of Barua. McCrindle[32] also noted the discrepancies but missed the real Chandragupta. Bosworth writes without any circumspection, ‘There were also refugees like Sisicottos, who had first served with Bessus and then co-operated with Alexander throughout the Sogdian campaigns (Arr. iv, 30. 4). Such men had every reason to encourage the king to invade, and he himself needed little encouragement.’ Bosworth fails to note that Chandragupta was also a refugee like Sasigupta and that ‘Sashi’ is a synonym of ‘Chandra’, but Raychaudhuri[33] surely knew the meaning of Sashi, yet he wrote in an equally desultory manner, ‘Chandragupta’s first emergence from obscurity into the full view of history occurs in 326-25 B.C. when he met Alexander.' So poor was the prognosis that even when H.C. Seth pointed out that Chandragupta could be Sasigupta, Raychadhuri took shelter under makeshift arguments.


    ENCIRCLING THE PRASII FROM ALL SIDES



    Even his worst detractors do not deny that Alexander was one of the greatest military tacticians of all times. The Gedrosian operation was in fact a brilliant three-pronged attack against the armies of Moeris and his allies. Alexander must have studied why both Cyrus and Semiramis were defeated by the fierce Massagetae who are none other than the Mahageatae or the Magadhans. Apart from the great fighting qualities and numerical strength of the Prasii, the desert terrain presented intractable logistical problems. To circumvent this he decided to carry supplies in ships. This is why the ships kept near the shoreline and the army also marched along the coast. Bagoas and Moeris knew this and despite the great care taken by Alexander to ensure food supplies, his enemies nearly succeeded in thwarting his plans by conniving with his Satraps. Harpalus and Bagoas probably were certain that Alexander would perish in the desert.



    After the surrender of the ruler of Patalene near the Indus delta Alexander placed a large column of veterans under the command of Craterus but instead of taking them along with him he sent them through the Bolan Pass (or Mulla Pass) to the Helmand valley from where they were to make their way to Carmania and unite with the main forces. This was a fairly strong force comprising three phalanx battalions, a large number of elderly troops, infantry and cavalry and the whole of the elephant corps. The elephants already smell of Chandragupta whose major point of strength were these stately animals. One can recall his gift of 500 elephants to Seleucus. About 40 year later, as we learn from the Babylonian records, his grandson Diodotus-I (Asoka) was to repeat a gift of twenty elephants to Antiochus-I. There can, therefore, be no doubt that the main purpose of Craterus’ men was to encircle the Prasii.


    BAGOAS THE ELDER WAS CHANAKYA



    While recounting the gruesome stories of bloodshed and turmoil that tarnished the expedition, writer’s on Alexander have lost sight of a Satan-like figure who literally revelled in murder and mayhem – Bagoas the elder.[34] Diodorus writes (xvii.5.3), ”While Phillip was still king, Ochus ruled the Persians and oppressed his subjects cruelly and harshly. Since his savage disposition made him hated, the chiliarch Bagoas, a eunuch in physical fact but a militant rogue in disposition, killed him by poison administered by a certain physician and placed upon the throne the youngest of his sons, Arses. He similarly made away with the brothers of the new king, who were barely of age, in order that the young man might be isolated and tractable to his control. But the young king let it be known that he was offended at Bagoas’ previous outrageous behaviour and was prepared to punish the author of these crimes, so Bagoas anticipated his intentions and killed Arses and his children also while he was still in the third year of his reign. The royal house was thus extinguished, and there was no one in the direct line of descent to claim the throne”. Since Artaxerexes-III is referred to as Nindin or a Nanda in the Babylonian texts this immediately recalls the account in the Indian texts that Chanakya had decimated the Nanda line.
     
  11. Bhadra

    Bhadra Defence Professionals Defence Professionals Senior Member

    Joined:
    Jul 11, 2011
    Messages:
    6,687
    Likes Received:
    2,357
    Watch :

     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 10, 2015
  12. Bhadra

    Bhadra Defence Professionals Defence Professionals Senior Member

    Joined:
    Jul 11, 2011
    Messages:
    6,687
    Likes Received:
    2,357
     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 10, 2015
  13. Bhadra

    Bhadra Defence Professionals Defence Professionals Senior Member

    Joined:
    Jul 11, 2011
    Messages:
    6,687
    Likes Received:
    2,357
     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 10, 2015
  14. Bhadra

    Bhadra Defence Professionals Defence Professionals Senior Member

    Joined:
    Jul 11, 2011
    Messages:
    6,687
    Likes Received:
    2,357
     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 10, 2015
  15. Bhadra

    Bhadra Defence Professionals Defence Professionals Senior Member

    Joined:
    Jul 11, 2011
    Messages:
    6,687
    Likes Received:
    2,357
     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 10, 2015
  16. IBSA

    IBSA Regular Member

    Joined:
    Nov 16, 2011
    Messages:
    926
    Likes Received:
    832
    Location:
    São Paulo
    Chanakya, or Kautilya, or Vishnugupta, is the father of Indian realistic thinking and one of fathers of realism school as Machiavelli, Thucydides, etc., having written his work before all them.

    Indian subcontinent was divided in that time in several kingdoms and the Greeks were advancing each more. Chanakya wanted a king enabled to repel the Greek army and saw this ideal king in Chandragupta (called by Greeks as Sandrokottos), for who Chanakya teach his knowledges.

    My current e-mail signature is a Chanakya's quote:

    "Of the three gains, the acquisition of a friend, of gold, and of territory, accruing from the march of combined powers, that which is mentioned later is better than the one previously mentioned; for friends and gold can be acquired by means of territory; of the two gains, that of a friend and of gold, each can be a means to acquire the other." - Chanakya
     
  17. Bhadra

    Bhadra Defence Professionals Defence Professionals Senior Member

    Joined:
    Jul 11, 2011
    Messages:
    6,687
    Likes Received:
    2,357
    That is good.
     

Share This Page