Border Security Forces Of India and News

Discussion in 'Internal Security' started by shom, Apr 26, 2013.

  1. shom

    shom Regular Member

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    Border Security Force:-
    The Border Security Force (BSF) is a Border Guarding Force of India. Established on December 1, 1965, it is a paramilitary force charged with guarding India's land border during peace time and preventing transnational crime. It is a Union Government Agency under the administrative control of Ministry of Home Affairs.It is one of many law enforcement agency of India.It currently stands as the world's largest border guarding force.
    The Border Security Force (BSF) is a border guarding force of the Government of India. Established on December 1, 1965, it is one of the Central Armed Police Forces. Its primary role is to guard India's international borders during peacetime and also prevent trans border crime. Like all paramilitary forces of India, the BSF is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Home Affairs. It is one of the many law enforcement agencies of India.


    The unique BSF Camel Contingent during the annual Republic Day Parade.
    With a strength of 240,000 personnel in 186 battalions, including women personnel,[1][1][2] it is one of the world's largest border patrol forces. K F Rustomji, the BSF's first Director General is referred to as founding father of the BSF. Its current Director General is Subhash Joshi.

    Formation:-
    The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 demonstrated the inadequacies of the existing border management system and led to the formation of the Border Security Force as a unified central agency with the specific mandate of guarding India's international boundaries. The BSF was the brain child of its founding father Sh KF Rustamji, the first Director General of BSF. Till 1965 India’s borders with Pakistan were manned by the State Armed Police Battalion. Pakistan attacked Sardar Post, Chhar Bet and Beria Bet on April 9, 1965 in Kutch. This exposed the inadequacy of the State Armed Police to cope with armed aggression due to which the Government of India felt the need for a specialized centrally controlled Border Security Force, which would be armed and trained to man the International Border with Pakistan. As a result of the recommendations of the Committee of Secretaries, the Border Security Force came into existence on Dec 1, 1965 with K F Rustamji as its first Director General.
    The BSF's capabilities were used in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 against Pakistani forces in areas where the Regular Forces were thinly spread; BSF troops took part in several operations including the famous Battle of Longewala. In fact, for BSF the war on eastern front had started well before the war actually broke out in Dec '71. BSF had trained, supported and formed part of "Mukti Bahini" and had entered erstwhile East Pakistan before the actual hostilities broke out. BSF had played a very important role in Liberation of Bangladesh which Indira Gandhi and Sheikh Mujibur Rehman had also acknowledged.
    The BSF, long considered a male bastion, has now deployed its first batch of women personnel at the border to carry out regular frisking of women as well as other duties performed by their male counterparts, including guarding the border. Over 100 women have been deployed on the highly volatile Indo-Pak border, while around 60 will be deployed on the Indo-Bangla border. In total, 595 women constables will be deployed on the border in different phases.
    The previous Director General was U K Bansal who took charge in November 2011.
    Organisation:-
    The Border Security Force has its Head Quarters at New Delhi and is known as Force Head Quarter (FHQ) headed by a Director General. Various Directorates like Operations, Communications & IT, Training, Engineering, General, Law, Provisioning, Administration, Personnel, Medical, Finance etc. function under the DG. Each Directorate is headed by an IG. The Eastern Theater is looked after by Spl DG HQ at Kolkata and the Western Theater is looked after by Spl DG HQ at Chandigarh.Field Formations in BSF are headed by an IG and are known as Frontiers Head Quarters (FtrHQ). There are 10 such Frontier under which Sector Head Quarters (SHQ) function headed by a DIG each. There are 31 such Sectors. Each SHQ has under its command 4–5 Duty Battalions. Presently 186 Battalions are sanctioned to BSF. Five major training institutions and 10 Subsidiary Training Centres (STCs) are imparting ab-initio as well as in-service training to its ranks and other CPOs/SPOs including IPS Probationers.
    BSF is the only Central Armed Police force to have its own Air Wing, Marine Wing and artillery regiments, which support the General Duty Battalions in their operations.
    The BSF also has a national level school for breeding and training of dogs. Dogs from other CPOs and State Police are sent to National Training Centre for Dogs (NTCD) to be trained in infantry patrol, detection of explosives, tracking and the like.
    The BSF maintains a Tear Smoke Unit (TSU), which is unique in India. The TSU is responsible for producing tear gas munitions required for the Anti-Riot Forces. It also exports a substantial quantity to other countries.
    Two battalions of the BSF, located at Kolkata and Guwahati, are designated as the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF). Each battalion maintains 18 self-contained specialist search and rescue teams of 45 personnel each, including engineers, technicians, electricians, dog squads and medical/paramedics. The establishment of each battalion is 1,158 personnel. The NDRF is a multi-disciplinary, multi-skilled, high-tech force for all types of disasters and can deploy to disasters by air, sea and land. The battalions are equipped and trained for all natural disasters including combating nuclear disaster, biological and chemical disasters.

    Equipment

    All the equipment including the uniforms, weapons, ammunition, vehicles such as the bullet proof vehicles, troop carriers, logistics vehicles, mine protected vehicles are manufactured indigenously at the Indian Ordnance Factories under control of the Ordnance Factories Board. Exept the Newly Induced Beretta MX Storm.
    Pistols And handguns


    FN Browning Hi-Power Practical
    IOF .32 Revolver – 6 shot handgun
    FN Browning GP35 9mmx19 mm
    [edit]Sub-machine guns and carbines


    Heckler & Koch MP5K
    Heckler & Koch MP5 A3 9mmx19 mm SMG
    Heckler & Koch MP5 K 9mmx19 mm SMG
    SAF Carbine 1A 9mmx19 mm, Indian made Sterling L2A1 SMG.This is currently being retired.
    SAF Carbine 2A1 9mmx19 mm, Silenced Carbine.This is currently being retired.
    Beretta MX4 Storm submachine guns. 68000 SMGs to be procured to replace OFB 9mm carbines.
    [edit]Assault rifles
    AK-47
    INSAS 5.56mmx45 mm Assault Rifle
    S.L.R self-loading rifle ( Indian origin, has been phased out 90%, with INSAS)
    [edit]Sniper rifles
    Vidhwansak anti-materiel rifle (AMR) or large-caliber sniper rifle[12]
    Steyr SSG 69
    [edit]Machine guns
    5.56mm INSAS LMG
    FN MAG


    Carl Gustav recoilless rifle
    [edit]Rocket-propelled grenade
    RPG-7 40mm Rocket Launcher
    [edit]Multi-role recoilless rifle
    Carl Gustav 84 mm recoilless rifles
    Air defence
    MANPADS
    SA-16 Gimlet- In Service
    SA-7 Grail- In Service, to be phased out
    It Also has a Air wing.
    Air Wing
    BSF Air Wing came into existence in the year 1969 with a single Queen Air C-80 aircraft. Thereafter utility of its operations and services were extended to cover all Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF's) in the year 1974.


    With Civil aviation making rapid advances in all fields, BSF Air Wing has brought about a qualitative change in the total flying environment by the process of expansion, reorganisation and modernisation.


    Air Wing Fleet consists of Embraer-135 J, Avro (HS-748) and Super King B-200 aircraft in fixed wing and ALH (Dhruv), Cheetah and Mi-17 1V in Rotary Wing. With ever increasing role of air support, Air Wing is adding new aircraft in its fleet with MTA and Mi-17 V5 acquisition already in process.

    Air Wing has its bases at New Delhi, Raipur, Ranchi, Agartala & Srinagar, with Fixed Wing operations only from Delhi.
    Sources:- Wikipidia and BSF website
     
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  3. shom

    shom Regular Member

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  4. shom

    shom Regular Member

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    Drugs worth Rs. 260 crore smuggled from Pakistan seized
    17/04/2013
    Narcotic drugs with an estimated value of 260 crore, allegedly smuggled from Pakistan, were seized from two different places along the Indo-Pak border in the district by Border Security Force.

    52 kilogram of heroin worth Rs. 260 crore in the international Black market was seized on Tuesday from two different places of Punjab border, DIG Intelligence BSF Pankaj Jaiswal said in Amritsar on Wednesday.

    "32 kilogram heroin was seized last night from Khem Karan border whereas another seizure of 20 kilogram was made last night from Rorawali Border Post near Attari border," he said.

    BSF night patrolling party observed some suspected movements near Khem Karan, but gun shots were fired on them by smugglers whereupon BSF retaliated, the DIG said.

    After the retaliation by BSF the smugglers under the cover of darkness managed to escape towards Pakistan, he said.

    Besides the 32 kilogram heroin, during searches on Wednesday morning BSF recovered one automatic pistol, one Nokia mobile with Pakistani Sim and opium in very small quantity, he said.

    Jaiswal said the Pakistani smugglers were carrying AK-47 Assault rifle with them since empty case of cartridges of the same calibre were recovered in the morning from the spot.

    No one has been arrested from both the spots since the smugglers managed to escape during night, he added.
     
  5. shom

    shom Regular Member

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  6. shom

    shom Regular Member

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  7. shom

    shom Regular Member

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    INTRODUCTION:
    [​IMG]
    google image hosting
    Rustamji

    Till 1965 India’s borders with Pakistan were manned by the State Armed Police Battalion. Pakistan attacked Sardar Post, Chhar Bet and Beria Bet on 9 April, 1965 in Kutch. This exposed the inadequacy of the State Armed Police to cope with armed aggression due to which the Government of India felt the need for a specialized centrally controlled Border Security Force, which would be armed and trained to man the International Border with Pakistan. As a result of the recommendations of the Committee of Secretaries, the Border Security Force came into existence on 01 Dec 1965, and Shri K F Rustamji was the first chief and founding father.

    ROLE OF THE BSF:

    SECURITY OF BORDER OF India and matters connected therewith.

    TASKS OF THE BSF:

    The tasks of the BSF are divided as follows:

    Peace time:
    Promote a sense of security among the people living in the border areas.
    Prevent trans border crimes, unauthorized entry into or exit from the territory of India.
    Prevent smuggling and any other illegal activity.

    In the last few years the BSF has, in addition to their duties, been deployed for counter insurgency and internal security duties
    War Time:
    Holding ground in less threatened sectors.
    Protection of vital installations.
    Assistance in control of refugees.
    Anti-infiltration duties in specified areas.
    ETHOS:

    The BSF, in its 41 years of existence, has emerged as an elite force of the country having excelled with distinction in the 1971 war with Pakistan. Its ethos is “Any task, any time, any where” and the BSF has given blood and sweat to execute its motto “Duty Unto Death”.

    BORDER FENCING /FLOOD LIGHTING/ROADS:

    The concept of border fencing, flood lighting and construction of roads has been introduced with the aim to stop infiltration/infiltration on the Western and Eastern borders.

    YOU KNOW ?
    The BSF contributes every year a number of personnel for services for UN Mission.
    During the Kargil conflict in May-July 1999, the BSF remained on the heights of the mountains and defended the integrity of the country with all the might at its command in unison with the Army.
    BSF personnel have been performing Internal Security Duty in Manipur for the last two years and have been successfully fighting insurgency in those areas.
    During the earthquake in Gujarat on 26th January 2001, the BSF was the first to reach out to help the distressed people.
    During the communal disturbances in Gujarat recently, BSF personnel went all out to restore amity and brotherhood among the people.
    The BSF took over the erection of the border fencing in Jammu & Kashmir and it was successful in its task despite all attempts of Pakistan to scuttle our efforts.
    The BSF has been defending the borders along with the army and checking infiltration on the borders during the current standoff with Pakistan.
     
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  8. shom

    shom Regular Member

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    Elite Commando Force of Border Security Force
    Creek Crocodile Commando are the elite commando force of BSF. It is Rann of Kutch (an extensive salt marsh of western India and southeast Pakistan between the Gulf of Kutch and the Indus River delta. It was the scene of major border disputes in 1965 and 1971). Creek (Gujarat): In order to thwart landing of terrorists through the sea route, BSF has formed its first commando unit—Creek Crocodiles—to man the hostile creek area where India shares a border with Pakistan.
    Creeks are a very hostile terrain, constituting numerous raised grounds having mangroves and a network of water channels which are quite shallow where all movements are tide dependent.
    Creek Crocodiles are trained to thwart any evil designs from across the border, BSF commandant Pushpendra Singh Rathore, who had created and trained the commando unit at Koteshwar outpost of BSF, said.
    "We have kept three things in mind while selecting cadets for the commando including swimming and marine diving performance, firing abilities and endurance to work in the rough creek," commandant Rathore said.[citation needed]
    The Crocodile units have 42 commandos at present[when?] and they are undergoing vigorous training, he said.
    Border Security Force forms new wing to combat terrorist activities
    Vimal Bhatia, TNN Oct 1, 2012, 01.44AM IST


    Rajasthan|Desert Scorpion|cross border intrusion|Crocodile Commando Force|Border security force
    JAISALMER: The Border Security Force (BSF) has formed a new anti-terrorist commando force - Desert Scorpion - to deal with incidents of cross border intrusion in Rajasthan. The squad is armed with weapons like AK47 and also Maurer and LMG.

    According to sources, looking to the growing number of terrorist attacks at the international borders of the country and efforts to enter into the Indian border, challenges for security forces have increased. Thus, the need for a trained force was felt that can deal with terrorist incidents.
    BSF ATV n Creek Crocodile Commandos - STAR News Special.wmv - YouTube
     
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  9. shom

    shom Regular Member

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  10. shom

    shom Regular Member

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  11. shom

    shom Regular Member

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    ROLL OF HONOUR: Last Updated: Tuesday, June 12, 2012
    In performance of duties, following honours and awards were earned by the BSF Personnel:

    ARMY AWARDS
    Mahavir Chakra 01
    Param Vishisht Seva Medal 01
    KirtiChakra 04
    Vir Chakra 11
    Ati Vishisht Seva Medal 01
    Shaurya Chakra 12
    Sena Medal 56
    Vishist Seva Medal 11
    Mention dispatches 44
    CIVIL AWARDS
    Padma Bhushan 02
    Padamshri 07
    PM Medal for life saving 43
    Arjuna Awards 17
    National Adventure Awardees 02
    Jeevan Raksha Padak 03
    POLICE MEDALS
    President's Police Medal for Gallantry 230
    Police Medal for Gallantry 844
    President Police Medal for Distinguished Service 241
    Police Medal for Meritorious Service 2319
    UN Medal ( The DAG Hammarskold ) 02
    Courtesy:- BSF website
     
    Last edited: Apr 30, 2013
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  12. shom

    shom Regular Member

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    The sole Mahavir Chakra winner for BSF is Assistant Commandant Ram Krishna Wadhwa:-
    [​IMG]
    image hosting
    Assistant Commandant Ram Krishna Wadhwa, was born on 10 November 1940, at Jalandhar, Punjab. He was commissioned in the Regiment of Artillery on 2 February 1964. After his release from the Army in 1968, he joined the Border Security Force. In the 1971 Indo-Pak War, Asst. Cmdt. R.K. Wadhwa's unit was deployed in the Raja Mohtam area on the Western Front. On 5 December 1971, the BSF picket at Raja Mohtam was attacked and occupied by the enemy despite the stiff resistance of the defenders. The recovery of this picket was considered essential and the task was entrusted to Assistant Commandant Wadhwa.

    Assistant Commandant Wadhwa, with two platoons under his command, quickly moved to the forming up place, braving the enemy shelling and machine gun fire. The enemy was well entrenched and holding the position in good strength. Despite the disparity in numbers he attacked the enemy with determination. The enemy directed fire on his platoons from all sides and it appeared that the BSF attack would fail. But Assistant Commandant Wadhwa was not prepared for any kind of failure. With utter disregard for his personal safety, he led his troops gallantly through heavily mined areas, under intense and accurate fire. His courage inspired the men to close in on the enemy and capture the objective.

    The enemy did not reconcile to this defeat. They launched a counter-attack on December 10th with a much large force, under the cover of intense artillery and mortar fire. Asst. Cmdt. Wadhwa faced the attack boldly and with utter disregard to his personal safety he moved from trench to trench encouraging his men to give a spirited reply to the enemy. Thus inspired, his men fought gallantly and inflicted heavy losses on the enemy. While moving among his men under intense shelling, he was mortally wounded. Assistant Commandant Ram Krishna Wadhwa was awarded the Maha Vir Chakra for displaying courage, leadership and devotion to duty, posthumously. Jai Hind!! Jai Jawan!!
    Courtesy:- Bharat Rakshak
     
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  13. Ankit Purohit

    Ankit Purohit Senior Member Senior Member

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    Thread is Dedicated to BSF :salute:
     
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  14. shom

    shom Regular Member

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    Will post ITBP also ,,, later,,,
     
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  15. shom

    shom Regular Member

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    BSF returns runaway Pakistani boy carrying pictures of Bollywood stars:-[/B]
    Press Trust of India | Updated: April 28, 2013 23:38 IST
    Jodhpur: A Pakistani boy, who ran away from his home after being beaten by his father for not doing his homework and had inadvertently crossed over to this side of border, was on Sunday handed over by the Border Security Force (BSF) to Pakistani rangers.

    13-year-old Nadeem Mehar, a resident of Bahawalnagar in Pakistan, was returned by BSF to their counterparts at the border in Anoopgarh sector.

    The BSF's goodwill gesture comes close on the heels of the return of seven-year-old Rajasthani girl Pooja Meghwal, who had accidentally strayed into Pakistan and returned wearing new clothes, shoes given by Pakistani Rangers earlier this month.

    Mehar had inadvertently crossed over the international border and had entered Indian territory late Saturday evening after having a tiff with his father.

    A BSF official said that the boy had crossed over to Indian territory from the sensitive Kailash Border Out-Post of Ghaggar basin, which has a forest cover.

    "We immediately informed the Pakistani Rangers about this violation of the sanctity of International boundary not very far from Pak Rangers Observation Post on Saturday evening," said the official.

    The boy reportedly admitted to have left the home in a fit of anger after beaten by his father for not doing his homework. His father had compelled him to work on their farm.

    "He could not keep his sentiments under control and headed inadvertently to the border and crossed it," said the official adding that only after he was detected by BSF, he realised that he was standing in Indian Territory.

    He said that nothing objectionable was found from his possession.

    "He was carrying some pictures of bollywood actors," said the official.

    Since last one year, more than 12 Pakistani nationals including kids and women have been handed over to Pakistan Rangers by BSF in Sriganganagar Sector.
    Courtesy:- BSF returns runaway Pakistani boy carrying pictures of Bollywood stars | NDTV.com
     
  16. shom

    shom Regular Member

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    Govt clears Rs 11,000 cr modernisation plan for central forces
    By PTI | 1 May, 2013, 06.44PM IST
    NEW DELHI: Government today approved a Rs 11,000-crore project for modernisation of central paramilitary forces, including ITBP which guards the now tense Sino-Indian border.

    The high-powered Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS), headed by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, cleared the much awaited projected which will be implemented in five years beginning this fiscal.

    CRPF, BSF, ITBP, CISF, SSB, NSG and Assam Rifles will benefit under the plan which was awaiting approval from CCS.

    Sources said the standoff along the Sino-Indian border in Ladakh, which is being guarded by the Indo-Tibetan Border Police, is believed to have prompted the CCS to clear the project which is already delayed by a year.

    Chinese troops had pitched tents 19 km inside Indian territory in Daulat Beg Oldie area in Ladakh last month, leading to tension on the frontier.

    The modernisation will ensure that the forces have better arms, ammunition, night vision devices, patrolling equipment, vehicles and other infrastructural upgradation.

    The CRPF is primarily deployed for internal security, law and order maintenance and anti-Naxal operations. The BSF guards the Indo-Pakistan and Indo-Bangladesh borders besides helping in internal security duties.

    The ITBP guards the Sino-Indian border while SSB protects the Indo-Nepal and Indo-Bhutan frontiers. The CISF primarily guards country's civil airports and major installations, including in nuclear and aero space domain.

    The NSG is a specialist counter-terror force while Assam Rifles guards the Indo-Myanmar border and is deployed in counter-insurgency operations in the Northeast.

    The combined strengthen of all central paramilitary forces is around eight lakh personnel.
     
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  17. shom

    shom Regular Member

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    Border security Force's Air Defense:-
    MANPADS
    SA-16 Gimlet- In Service
    SA-7 Grail- In Service, to be phased out
    SA-16 Gimlet:-
    The 9K38 Igla (Russian: Игла́, needle) is a Russian/Soviet man-portable infrared homing surface-to-air missile (SAM). "9K38" is the Russian GRAU designation of the system. Its US DoD designation is SA-18 and its NATO reporting name is Grouse; a simplified, earlier version is known as the 9K310 Igla-1, or SA-16 Gimlet. The latest variant is the 9K338 Igla-S NATO reporting name SA-24 Grinch. It has been fielded by the Russian Army since 2004.[1]
    There exists a two-barrel SA-18 missile launcher called Djigit.[2]
    Igla-1
    The 9K310 Igla-1 system and its 9M313 missile were accepted into service in the Soviet army on 11 March 1981. The main differences from the Strela-3 included an optional Identification Friend or Foe system to prevent firing on friendly aircraft, an automatic lead and super elevation to simplify shooting and reduce minimum firing range, a slightly larger rocket, reduced drag and better guidance system extend maximum range and improve performance against fast and maneuverable targets, an improved lethality on target achieved by a combination of delayed impact fuzing, terminal maneuver to hit the fuselage rather than jet nozzle, an additional charge to set off the remaining rocket fuel (if any) on impact, an improved resistance to infrared countermeasures (both decoy flares and ALQ-144 series jamming emitters), and slightly improved seeker sensitivity.
    According to the manufacturer, South African tests have shown[citation needed] the Igla's superiority over the contemporary (1982 service entry) but smaller and lighter American FIM-92A Stinger missile. However, other tests in Croatia did not support[citation needed] any clear superiority, but effectively equal seeker performance and only marginally shorter time of flight and longer range for the Igla.
    According to Kolomna OKB,[citation needed] the Igla-1 has a Pk (probability of kill) of 0.30 to 0.48 against unprotected targets which is reduced to 0.24 in the presence of decoy flares and jamming. In another report the manufacturer claimed[citation needed] a Pk of 0.59 against an approaching and 0.44 against receding F-4 Phantom II fighter not employing infrared countermeasures or evasive maneuvers.
    [​IMG]
    photo sharing
    SA-7 Grail:-
    The 9K32 “Strela-2” (Russian 9К32 “Cтрела-2” — arrow; NATO reporting name SA-7 Grail) is a man-portable, shoulder-fired, low-altitude surface-to-air missile system with a high explosive warhead and passive infrared homing guidance. Broadly comparable to the US Army FIM-43 Redeye, it was the first generation of Soviet man-portable SAMs, entering service in 1968, with series production starting in 1970.[3]
    Described by one expert as being "the premier Russian export line",[4] the Strela and its variants have seen widespread use in nearly every regional conflict since 1968.
    The missile launcher system consists of the green missile launch tube containing the missile, a grip stock and a cylindrical thermal battery. The launch tube is reloadable at depot, but missile rounds are delivered to fire units in their launch tubes. The device can be reloaded up to five times.[9]
    When engaging slow or straight-receding targets, the operator tracks the target with the iron sights in the launch tube and applies half-trigger. This action "uncages" the seeker and allows its attempt to track. If target IR signature can be tracked against the background present, this is indicated by a green light and a buzzer sound. The shooter then pulls the trigger fully, and immediately applies lead and superelevation. This method is called a manual engagement. An automatic mode, which is used against fast targets, allows the shooter to fully depress the trigger in one pull followed by immediate lead and superelevation of the launch tube. The seeker will uncage and will automatically launch the missile if a strong enough signal is detected.
    Manufacturer lists reaction time measured from carrying position (missile carried at soldier's back with protective covers) to missile launch to be 13 seconds, a figure that is achievable but requires considerable training and skill in missile handling. With launcher on the shoulder, covers removed and sights extended, reaction time from fire command to launch reduces to 6–10 seconds, depending greatly on target difficulty and shooter's skill.
    After activating the power supply to the missile electronics, the gunner waits for electricity supply and gyros to stabilize, puts the sights on target and tracks it smoothly with the launch tube's iron sights, and pulls the trigger on the grip stock. This activates the seeker electronics and the missile attempts to lock onto the target. If the target is producing a strong enough signal and the angular tracking rate is within acceptable launch parameters, the missile alerts the gunner that the target is locked on by illuminating a red light in the sight mechanism, and producing a constant buzzing noise. The operator then has 0.8 seconds to provide lead to the target while the missiles on-board power supply is activated and the throw-out motor ignited.
    Should the target be outside acceptable parameters then the light cue in the sight and buzzer signal tell the gunner to re-aim the missile.
    On launch, the booster burns out before the missile leaves the launch tube at 32 m/s, and rotating the missile at approximately 20 revolutions per second. As the missile leaves the tube the two forward steering fins unfold, as do the four rear stabilizing tail fins. The self-destruct mechanism is then armed, which is set to destroy the missile after between 14 and 17 seconds to prevent it hitting the ground if it should miss the target.
    Once the missile is five and half meters away from the gunner, approximately 0.3 seconds after leaving the launch tube it activates the rocket sustainer motor. The sustainer motor takes it to a velocity of 430 meters per second, and sustains it at this speed. Once it reaches peak speed at a distance of around 120 meters from the gunner, the final safety mechanism is disabled and the missile is fully armed. All told, the booster burns for 0.5 second and the driving engine for another 2.0 seconds.[9]
    The missile's uncooled lead sulphide passive infra-red seeker head detects infrared radiation at below 2.8 μm in wavelength. It has a 1.9 degree field of view and can track at 9 degrees per second. The seeker head tracks the target with an amplitude-modulated spinning reticle (spin-scan or AM tracking), which attempts to keep the seeker constantly pointed towards the target. The spinning reticle measures the amount of incoming infrared (IR) energy. It does this by using a circular pattern that has solid portions and slats that allow the IR energy to pass through to the seeker. As the reticle spins IR energy passes through the open portions of the reticle. Based on where the IR energy falls on the reticle the amount or amplitude of IR energy allowed through to the seeker increases the closer to the center of the reticle. Therefore, the seeker is able to identify where the center of the IR energy is. If the seeker detects a decrease in the amplitude of the IR energy it steers the missile back towards where the IR energy was the strongest. Unfortunately, the seeker's design creates a dead-space in the middle of the reticle. The center mounted reticle has no detection capability. This means that as the seeker tracks a target as soon as the seeker is dead center, (aimed directly at the IR source) there is a decrease in the amplitude of IR energy. The seeker interprets this decrease as being off target so it changes direction. This causes the missile to move off target until another decrease in IR energy is detected and the process repeats itself. This gives the missile a very noticeable wobble in flight as the seeker bounces in and out from the dead-space. This wobble becomes more pronounced as the missile closes on the target as the IR energy fills a greater portion of the reticle. These continuous course corrections effectively bleed energy from the missile reducing its range and velocity.
    The guidance of the SA-7 follows proportional convergence logic, also known as angle rate tracking system or pro-logic. In this method as the seeker tracks the target, the missile is turned towards where the seeker is turning towards - not where it is pointing at - relative to the missile longitudinal axis. Against a target flying in a straight-line course at constant speed, the angle rate of seeker-to-body reduces to zero when the missile is in a straight-line flight path to intercept point.
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    Courtesy:- Wikipidia
     
  18. shom

    shom Regular Member

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    Border Security Force and United nation Peace Keeping Mission:-
    UNITED NATION PEACE KEEPING MISSION
    UN Mission in Namibia during 1989
    UN Mission in Cambodia during 1992
    UN Mission in Mozambique during 1994
    UN Mission in Angola during 1995
    UN Mission in Bosnia & Herzegovina during 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999
    UN Mission in Haiti during 1997
    Sources:- BSF website
     
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  19. Bhadra

    Bhadra Defence Professionals Defence Professionals Senior Member

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    Dante wada, Chhatis Garh, Raipur, Srinagar etc are also considered by CRPF as peace missions India

    Dal roti khao aur Prabhu ke gun gao
     
    Last edited: May 3, 2013
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  20. shom

    shom Regular Member

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    Perhaps i was talking about World and United nations,,, In comparison to UN missions in Cambodia and Namibia ,, they are just like pin injuries,,,
     
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  21. Bhadra

    Bhadra Defence Professionals Defence Professionals Senior Member

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    For a police force those are major operations
     

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