Discussion in 'Religion & Culture' started by santosh10, Oct 31, 2014.
Below is the government website of India :ranger:
=> British Rule in India mainly started from 1818 :ranger:
INDIA'S DE-INDUSTRIALIZATION UNDER BRITISH RULE
India was a major player in the world export market for textiles in the early 18th century, but by the middle of the 19th century it had lost all of its export market and much of its domestic market. Other local industries also suffered some decline, and India underwent secular de-industrialization as a consequence. While India produced about 25 percent of world industrial output in 1750, this figure fell to only 2 percent by 1900. We use an open, specific-factor model to organize our thinking about the relative role played by domestic and foreign forces in India's de-industrialization. The construction of new relative price evidence is central to our analysis. We document trends in the ratio of export to import prices (the external terms of trade) from 1800 to 1913, and that of tradable to non-tradable goods and own-wages in the tradable sectors going back to 1765. With this new relative price evidence in hand, we ask how much of the de-industrialization was due to local supply-side influences (such as the demise of the Mughal empire) and how much to world price shocks (such as world market integration and rapid productivity advance in European manufacturing), both of which had to deal with an offset n the huge net transfer from India to Britain before 1815. Whether the Indian de-industrialization shocks and responses were big or small is then assessed by comparisons with other parts of the periphery.
and to get to know how exactly British Ruled India then also. we have many movies made on it, one of them is the Oscar Nominated Mr Amir Khan's movie as below:
like in this movie in between 4.20min to 6.20min to have an idea of how British ruled India. "Divide and Rule" :ranger:
And double Lagaan (tax) charged to poor farmers if one of those Regional Hindu king doesnâ€™t eat meat in between 20.00min to 23.00min.
=> young generation of today's India are not aware of the facts about the British Rule, even if they study all from the primary schools, they generally forget till the age of 20-21. too many movies were made to state the sudden change occurred when British left India in 1947, like this movie as below, see from 2.40min onward, how 'life' of poor affected when British left India and how these landlords then came to foot
we also have data's related to "manufacturing output" of the countries till 19th century, as below :ranger:
Share of World Manufacturing Output, 1750 - 1900
further, i prepared a post as below too, which may have a place here too, i think :thumb:
Indian Democracy and it Values, we Proud on (revised)
The meaning of Independence India got in 1947
in short i may say,
"as part of our freedom, there is no law in India which makes difference among the people based on religion/ race/ language/ state etc, there is no super human like British anymore in India, and now we pay taxes to that Indian government which use it for the purpose to help the people based in India, not for the WW1 and WW2 to help Britain. with providing Equal Rights to all and more opportunities to the weak part of Indian society like Dalits/ Women, in terms of reservations in jobs/competitive exams and that's fair. at the same time we proud to say that we had many minorities Presidents/ PMs/ Chief Ministers/ Governors/ Chief Justice/ IAS topper/ Bollywood superstar/ Cricket Team Captain etc, and we proud to say that we got this type of country from our elders who fought for our freedom and we are responsible to give the same type of country to our coming generation too. we just can't compromise our "Independence" for any reason. and we have to defend our Independence from any type of external threat, which we are currently facing in terms of Sectarian War mainly in North East, from the Bangladeshi infiltration..."
"We now pay tax to that Indian government which use the tax money to help the people based in India itself, develop infrastructure in India to improve life of the people based in India, while before that we were paying tax to that British Government to help them in their wars. Mr Gandhi struggled to have Industries in India, who may then provide jobs to Indians and hence pay taxes to Indian government for the purpose to use this tax for the people based in India. and yes we have got that 'freedom', and trying to improve. and we now proud to say that we have made a place where the most deserving people get higher success, regardless in which family they took birth, (of any religion/ race/ language/state etc). and we hope India will become one of the best place to live by using their talent/ knowledge this way"
the above statement used the word "super human British" before 1947, frequent use of "freedom", "independence", as i prepared my above statement on 15th August last year........ the above statement has a clear sense to demonstrate "democratic structure" of India on the world platform, in terms of "Equal Rights" for all, "more opportunities" for weak part of society like Women/Schedule Caste in different exams/ jobs, as we have. with putting concern over the growing threats of "Sectarian Wars" in north east region due to Bangladeshi Infiltration. here, Freedom/ Independence of India is defined in terms of "Non-Religious Foundation" of Indian Democracy of Hindu Majority, and our Independence/ Freedom has the main threats from 'Sectarian Wars', fueled and funded by rogue neighbors of India......
(here, the "super human British" before 1947, is defined on the basis of fact that, the Democratic Britain never shared "equal voting rights" with the people based in India, but they were ruling India by their those around 100,000 British Passport holders, hence maintaining a status of "super human British" till 1947, as compare to those people who were based in India.
hence the people based in India were being ruled by the democratically elected government of England till 1947 this way, by those British passport holders, they had put in India on the different high government positions, without sharing "equal voting rights" with the Indian civilians in the British general elections.)
hey Srinivas, could you please check the post#5, is it Mr Amitabh Bachchan speaking in between 4.20minutes to 6.20minutes of Lagan part 1?
i don't have speaker in my PC right now. thanks
Will check it later and let you know mate !!
He is not Amitab Bachchan.
@Santhosh10 The scene is about a land lord who wants to take the lands of the poor and a guy who knows the plan opposing it.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (pronounced [ËˆmoËÉ¦É™ndÌªaËs ËˆkÉ™rÉ™mtÊƒÉ™ndÌª ËˆÉ¡aËndÌªÊ±i] ( listen); 2 October 1869 â€“ 30 January 1948), commonly known as Mahatma Gandhi or Bapu (Father of Nation), was the preeminent leader of Indian nationalism in British-ruled India. Employing non-violent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for non-violence, civil rights, and freedom across the world.
The son of a senior government official, Gandhi was born and raised in a Bania community in coastal Gujarat, and trained in law in London. Gandhi became famous by fighting for the civil rights of Muslim and Hindu Indians in South Africa, using new techniques of non-violent civil disobedience that he developed. Returning to India in 1915, he set about organising peasants to protest excessive land-taxes. A lifelong opponent of "communalism" (i.e. basing politics on religion) he reached out widely to all religious groups. He became a leader of Muslims protesting the declining status of the Caliphate. Assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns for easing poverty, expanding women's rights, building religious and ethnic amity, ending untouchability, increasing economic self-reliance, and above all for achieving Swarajâ€”the independence of India from British domination. :ranger:
Gandhi led Indians in protesting the national salt tax with the 400 km (250 mi) Dandi Salt March in 1930, and later in demanding the British to immediately Quit India in 1942, during World War II. He was imprisoned for that and for numerous other political offenses over the years. Gandhi sought to practice non-violence and truth in all situations, and advocated that others do the same. He saw the villages as the core of the true India and promoted self-sufficiency; he did not support the industrialization programs of his disciple Jawaharlal Nehru. He lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven with yarn he had hand spun on a charkha. His chief political enemy in Britain was Winston Churchill, who ridiculed him as a half-naked fakir. He was a dedicated vegetarian, and undertook long fasts as means of both self-purification and political mobilization.
In his last year, unhappy at the partition of India, Gandhi worked to stop the carnage between Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs that raged in the border area between India and Pakistan. He was assassinated on 30 January 1948 by Nathuram Godse who thought Gandhi was too sympathetic to India's Muslims. 30 January is observed as Martyrs' Day in India. The honorific Mahatma ("Great Soul") was applied to him by 1914. In India he was also called Bapu ("Father"). He is known in India as the Father of the Nation; his birthday, 2 October, is commemorated there as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, and world-wide as the International Day of Non-Violence. Gandhi's philosophy was not theoretical but one of pragmatism, that is, practicing his principles in the moment. Asked to give a message to the people, he would respond, "My life is my message."
Mr Ghaffar Khan with Mahatma Gandh
With Congress now behind him in 1920, Gandhi had the base to employ non-cooperation, non-violence and peaceful resistance as his "weapons" in the struggle against the British Raj. His wide popularity among both Hindus and Muslims made his leadership possible; he even convinced the extreme faction of Muslims to support peaceful non-cooperation. The spark that ignited a national protest was overwhelming anger at the Jallianwala Bagh massacre (or Amritsar massacre) of hundreds of peaceful civilians by British troops in Punjab. Many Britons celebrated the action as needed to prevent another violent uprising similar to the Rebellion of 1857, an attitude that caused many Indian leaders to decide the Raj was controlled by their enemies. Gandhi criticised both the actions of the British Raj and the retaliatory violence of Indians. He authored the resolution offering condolences to British civilian victims and condemning the riots which, after initial opposition in the party, was accepted following Gandhi's emotional speech advocating his principle that all violence was evil and could not be justified.
After the massacre and subsequent violence, Gandhi began to focus on winning complete self-government and control of all Indian government institutions, maturing soon into Swaraj or complete individual, spiritual, political independence. During this period, Gandhi claimed to be a "highly orthodox Hindu" and in January 1921 during a speech at a temple in Vadtal, he spoke of the relevance of non-cooperation to Hindu Dharma, "At this holy place, I declare, if you want to protect your 'Hindu Dharma', non-cooperation is first as well as the last lesson you must learn up.".
In December 1921, Gandhi was invested with executive authority on behalf of the Indian National Congress. Under his leadership, the Congress was reorganised with a new constitution, with the goal of Swaraj. Membership in the party was opened to anyone prepared to pay a token fee. A hierarchy of committees was set up to improve discipline, transforming the party from an elite organisation to one of mass national appeal. Gandhi expanded his non-violence platform to include the swadeshi policyâ€”the boycott of foreign-made goods, especially British goods. Linked to this was his advocacy that khadi (homespun cloth) be worn by all Indians instead of British-made textiles. Gandhi exhorted Indian men and women, rich or poor, to spend time each day spinning khadi in support of the independence movement.
Gandhi even invented a small, portable spinning wheel that could be folded into the size of a small typewriter. This was a strategy to inculcate discipline and dedication to weeding out the unwilling and ambitious and to include women in the movement at a time when many thought that such activities were not respectable activities for women. In addition to boycotting British products, Gandhi urged the people to boycott British educational institutions and law courts, to resign from government employment, and to forsake British titles and honours.:ranger:
"Non-cooperation" enjoyed widespread appeal and success, increasing excitement and participation from all strata of Indian society. Yet, just as the movement reached its apex, it ended abruptly as a result of a violent clash in the town of Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh, in February 1922. Fearing that the movement was about to take a turn towards violence, and convinced that this would be the undoing of all his work, Gandhi called off the campaign of mass civil disobedience. This was the third time that Gandhi had called off a major campaign. Gandhi was arrested on 10 March 1922, tried for sedition, and sentenced to six years' imprisonment. He began his sentence on 18 March 1922. He was released in February 1924 for an appendicitis operation, having served only 2 years.
Without Gandhi's unifying personality, the Indian National Congress began to splinter during his years in prison, splitting into two factions, one led by Chitta Ranjan Das and Motilal Nehru favouring party participation in the legislatures, and the other led by Chakravarti Rajagopalachari and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, opposing this move. Furthermore, cooperation among Hindus and Muslims, which had been strong at the height of the non-violence campaign, was breaking down. Gandhi attempted to bridge these differences through many means, including a three-week fast in the autumn of 1924, but with limited success. In this year, Gandhi was persuaded to preside over the Congress session to be held in Belgaum. Gandhi agreed to become president of the session on one condition: that Congressmen should take to wearing homespun khadi. In his long political career, this was the only time when he presided over a Congress session.
Mahatma Gandhi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
=> Salt Satyagraha (Salt March)
Gandhi stayed out of active politics and, as such, the limelight for most of the 1920s. He focused instead on resolving the wedge between the Swaraj Party and the Indian National Congress, and expanding initiatives against untouchability, alcoholism, ignorance and poverty. He returned to the fore in 1928. In the preceding year, the British government had appointed a new constitutional reform commission under Sir John Simon, which did not include any Indian as its member. The result was a boycott of the commission by Indian political parties. Gandhi pushed through a resolution at the Calcutta Congress in December 1928 calling on the British government to grant India dominion status or face a new campaign of non-cooperation with complete independence for the country as its goal. Gandhi had not only moderated the views of younger men like Subhas Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru, who sought a demand for immediate independence, but also reduced his own call to a one year wait, instead of two.
The British did not respond. On 31 December 1929, the flag of India was unfurled in Lahore. 26 January 1930 was celebrated as India's Independence Day by the Indian National Congress meeting in Lahore. This day was commemorated by almost every other Indian organisation. Gandhi then launched a new Satyagraha against the tax on salt in March 1930. This was highlighted by the famous Salt March to Dandi from 12 March to 6 April, where he marched 388 kilometres (241 mi) from Ahmedabad to Dandi, Gujarat to make salt himself. Thousands of Indians joined him on this march to the sea. This campaign was one of his most successful at upsetting British hold on India; Britain responded by imprisoning over 60,000 people.
World War II and Quit India
Gandhi initially favoured offering "non-violent moral support" to the British effort when World War II broke out in 1939, but the Congressional leaders were offended by the unilateral inclusion of India in the war without consultation of the people's representatives. All Congressmen resigned from office. After long deliberations, Gandhi declared that India could not be party to a war ostensibly being fought for democratic freedom while that freedom was denied to India itself. As the war progressed, Gandhi intensified his demand for independence, calling for the British to Quit India in a speech at Gowalia Tank Maidan. This was Gandhi's and the Congress Party's most definitive revolt aimed at securing the British exit from India.
Gandhi was criticised by some Congress party members and other Indian political groups, both pro-British and anti-British. Some felt that not supporting Britain more in its struggle against Nazi Germany was unethical. Others felt that Gandhi's refusal for India to participate in the war was insufficient and more direct opposition should be taken, while Britain fought against Nazism, it continued to refuse to grant India Independence. Quit India became the most forceful movement in the history of the struggle, with mass arrests and violence on an unprecedented scale.
In 1942, although still committed in his efforts to "launch a non-violent movement", Gandhi clarified that the movement would not be stopped by individual acts of violence, saying that the "ordered anarchy" of "the present system of administration" was "worse than real anarchy." He called on all Congressmen and Indians to maintain discipline via ahimsa, and Karo ya maro ("Do or die") in the cause of ultimate freedom.
Gandhi and the entire Congress Working Committee were arrested in Bombay by the British on 9 August 1942. Gandhi was held for two years in the Aga Khan Palace in Pune. It was here that Gandhi suffered two terrible blows in his personal life. His 50-year old secretary Mahadev Desai died of a heart attack 6 days later and his wife Kasturba died after 18 months imprisonment on 22 February 1944; six weeks later Gandhi suffered a severe malaria attack. He was released before the end of the war on 6 May 1944 because of his failing health and necessary surgery; the Raj did not want him to die in prison and enrage the nation. He came out of detention to an altered political sceneâ€”the Muslim League for example, which a few years earlier had appeared marginal, "now occupied the centre of the political stage" and the topic of Jinnah's campaign for Pakistan was a major talking point. Gandhi met Jinnah in September 1944 in Bombay but Jinnah rejected, on the grounds that it fell short of a fully independent Pakistan, his proposal of the right of Muslim provinces to opt out of substantial parts of the forthcoming political union.
While the leaders of Congress languished in jail, the other parties supported the war and gained organizational strength. Underground publications flailed at the ruthless suppression of Congress, but it had little control over events. At the end of the war, the British gave clear indications that power would be transferred to Indian hands. At this point Gandhi called off the struggle, and around 100,000 political prisoners were released, including the Congress's leadership.
Mahatma Gandhi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose
Subhas Chandra Bose is one of those great freedom fighters who martyred their lives for Indiaâ€™s independence. He is popularly known as Netaji because he was considered to be a born leader. He was born on January 23, 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa. And was the ninth child of a famous lawyer Janaki Nath Bose and a religious lady Prabhavati Devi. He completed his graduation in Calcutta and went to England in 1919 to appear for Indian Civil Service Examination and achieved fourth place on merit. :thumb:
Filled with the feelings of patriotism, Bose was resolved to drive British out of the country. When in England, he was shaken by the incident of Jalianwala Bagh massacre and returned back to India in 1921. Under the influence of Mahatma Gandhi he joined the Indian National Congress and actively participated in Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930.
Subash along with Tilak and Auribindo were not convinced with Gandhi Jiâ€™s method of achieving independence. They were in favor of armed revolution and Netaji strongly believed that the only way to earn freedom was by shedding blood. With this strong belief, he involved himself in various revolutionary activities for which he was imprisoned many times. :ranger:
In 1938, Subash was elected as the President of All India Congress. At the time of World War II, Gandhi and Nehru did not support him for armed revolution and so he escaped to Germany to approach Hitler for help. Being impressed by Netaji, Hitler helped him to organize the Indian National Army with the soldiers of the prisoners of war. On October 21, 1943, Subash declared the formation of Azad Hind Government and hosted the Indian National Flag in Kohima, Assam on March 18, 1944.
Netaji with Adolf Hitler
In August 1945, Japan surrendered the territory and somehow Netaji escaped from there. He left in a war plane to an undisclosed destination and expired due to plane crash on August 17, 1945.
Subhas Chandra Bose | indianfreedomfighters
SELECTED LETTERS FROM SELECTED WORKS OF MAHATMA GANDHI
To Subhash Chandra Bose
My dear Subhash,
I have yours of 31st march as also the previous one. You are quite frank and I like your letters for the clear enunciation of your views.
The view you express seem to be so diametrically opposed to those of the others and my own that I do not see any possibility of bridging them. I think that such school of thought should be able to put forth its views before the country without any mixture. And if this is honestly done, I do not see why there should be any bitterness engaging in civil war.
What is wrong is not the differences between us but loss of mutual respect and trust. This will be remedied by time which is the best healer. If there is real non-violence in us, there can be no civil war and much bitterness.
Taking all things into consideration, I am of opinion that you should at once form your own Cabinet fully representing your views. Formulate your programme definitely and put it before the forthcoming A. I. C. C. If the Committee accepts the programme all will be plain-sailing and you should be enabled to prosecute it unhampered by the minority. If on the other hand your programme is not accepted you should resign and let the committee choose it president. And you will be free to educate the country along your lines.:coffee: I tender this advice irrespective of Pandit pant's resolution.
My prestige does not count. It has an independent value of its own. When my motive is suspected or my policy or programme rejected by the country, the prestige must go. India will rise and fall by the quality of the sum total of her many millions. Individuals, however high they may be, are of no account except in so far as they represent the many millions. Therefore let us rule it out of consideration.
I wholly dissent from your view that the country has been never so violent as now. I smell violence in the air I breath. But the violence has pout on a subtle form. Our mutual distrust I a bad form of violence. The widening gulf between Hindus and Mussalmans points to the same thing. I can give further illustrations.
We seem to differ ad to the amount of corruptions in the Congress. My impression is that it is in the increase. I have been pleading for the past many months for a thorough scrutiny.
In these circumstances I se no atmosphere of non-violent mass action. An ultimatum without effective sanction is worse than useless.
But as I have told you that I am an old man perhaps growing timid and over-cautious and you have youth before you and reckless optimism born of youth. I hope you are right. I am wrong. I have the firm belief that the Congress as it is today cannot deliver goods, cannot offer civil disobedience worth the name. Therefore if your prognosis is right, I am s back and played out as the generalissimo of Satyagraha.
I am glad you have mentioned the little Rajkot affair. It brings into prominent relief the different angles from which we look at things. I have nothing to repent of in the steps I have taken I connection with it. I feel that it has great national importance. I have not stopped civil disobedience in the other States for the sake of Rajkot. But Rajkot opened my eyes. It showed me the way. I am not in Delhi for my health. I am reluctantly in Delhi awaiting the Chief Justice's decision. I hold it to be my duty to be in Delhi till the steps to be taken in due fulfillment of the Viceroy's declaration in his last wire to me are finally taken. I may not run any risk. If I was invited the Paramount Power to do its duty, I was bound to be in Delhi to see that the duty as fully performed. I saw nothing wrong in the Chief Justice being appointed the interpreter of the document whose meaning was put in doubt by the Thakor Sahib. By the way, Sir Maurice will examine the document not in his capacity as Chief Justice but as a trained jurist trusted by the Viceroy. By accepting the Viceroy's nominee as judge, I fancy I have shown both wisdom and grace and what is more important I have increased the Vice regal responsibility in the matter,
Though we have discussed sharp differences of opinion between us, I am quite sure that our private relations will not suffer in the least. If they are from the heart, I believe they are, they will bear the strain of these differences.
Mahatma Gandhi : Selected Letters
Hi !! santosh10
The Greatest Indian of 20th century
I find Mr Gandhi would get the first spot without any controversy, even if Netaji SC Bose and Sardar Patel always attracted the young age people.....
it was really interesting while reading history of Mr Gandhi. a man who was among the highly qualified in his time of 19th century itself, a professional Lawyer studied Law from UK, having foreign visits at part of his profession that time too, who is mainly known for his contribution in South Africa. an Iron man walking on the road from top to bottom of India to unite people, sitting in the 3rd class of trains for the purpose to be among the common people bla bla..... once there was a joke that he couldn't become PM or president of Independent Republic of India and it was really a joke, did he want too?
there is a way to fight with the most powerful military of the world without any arm on hands, and he did that, even if he himself started running Charkha etc too, to boycott foreign products under his efforts to protect the home industries. once i discussed, he was an Upper Caste person in Hindu Religion and this is how common people sit on the chair when their President of Indian National Congress sewing cloths for himself, as below........ we find Mr Gandhi always winning this competition among all the Indians born during 19th and 20th century, by a hefty margin in fact
and the best part of his life was the way India's Father of Nation died, after being shot down by a Hindu Extremist for favoring Pakistan
this can be termed as a pathetic translation. BHARAT EK KHOJ means: india a discovery.
while discovery of india means - BHARAT KI KHOJ.
its the second movie Im asking about the first one, Lagan, the Oscar nominated Amir's movie. he is most probably Mr Bachchan speaking in between 4.20min to 6.20min :thumb:
THE IRON WILL
â€˜FREIES INDIEN LEGIONâ€™ â€“ Reminiscences of a Secret Indian Army in the Nazi Germany.
The â€˜Indian National Armyâ€™ or â€˜Azad Hind Faujâ€™ formed under the brilliant vision of the great Indian hero â€˜Netajiâ€™ Subhash Chandra Bose is emphatically remembered throughout India for its prominent role in providing the organized external armed resistance to free India from the evil clutches of the British Empire. This Indian army formed with the active help of Japan amazed everyone with achieving unattainable feats of glory and valor on the Eastern Front during the Second World War. However the very same India has been totally oblivious for decades about the existence of an another Indian Army formed by â€˜Netajiâ€™ in Nazi Germany for initiating an armed struggle for Indian independence from the western front of the war.
This army known as the â€˜Freies Indien Legionâ€™ occupies a significant place in Second World War, as it became a symbol for Indiaâ€™s firm resolve to fight against its imperial captors for which they were even willing to fight under the camp of the Axis powers. It also acted as a precursor to the subsequent formation of the â€˜Indian National Armyâ€™ on a much larger scale later on. So let us draw attention to how this enthralling story unfolds from the vault of history which not only tells about the birth of this army but also explores the deep connection which the Axis Powers under the leadership of Adolf Hitler had in this external struggle for Indian Independence.
The dawn of Second World War brought a big dilemma in front of the Indian leadership in British India. They had to choose whether they should lend support to the Reining Champions (the Allied Powers) such as â€“ USA, Britain, France, Canada etc or to support their Formidable Challengers (the Axis Powers) such as â€“ Germany, Italy and Japan in this ultimate bout which was prized for the world domination.
The British Government in the capacity of being the Imperial master took a unilateral decision to embroil its colony India into the war on its side without even consulting the Indians about it. The main political party â€˜Indian National Congressâ€™ immediately reacted by making loud protests for being sidelined on this issue however they later on agreed to support the decision subject to certain conditions out of which the question of resolving Indiaâ€™s Independence was the most important one.
Despite this stand of Congress the public was still outraged for being forcibly made to fight for their enslavers against those nations with whom India never had any sort of enmity in the past. â€˜Netajiâ€™ Subhash Chandra Bose who broke away from the Congress recently and whose popularity rivaled that of Mr. Gandhi by then understood this public sentiment and saw a solution emerging within this crisis which could help in Indiaâ€™s quest for freedom from the British Empire. He very well understood that the British would eventually break their promise and would never undertake a sincere effort to resolve Indiaâ€™s aspirations for freedom just like they did after the First World War. Thus supporting Britain and their allies in the war would eventually yield no benefit at all to the Indian cause.
He also saw that the might of British Empire was so great that mere peaceful and non-violent ways wouldnâ€™t suffice in throwing off a determined colonial power from the country unless the very power centre of that very empire which was Great Britain itself is totally destabilized. Therefore the wisdom for doing so lied in the fact that if India diplomatically treats Britainâ€™s enemies like Germany and Russia as its friends then may be the fall of British Empire along with the subsequent achievement of the freedom of India could be clinically engineered.
In view of this fact â€˜Netajiâ€™ immediately spoke against Indiaâ€™s participation in war for which he was soon arrested in Calcutta. However being an expert fugitive he escaped from detention and reached Afghanistan in order to establish contact with the Russian and German authorities over there. After that he proceeded to Russia where he saw that the Communist authorities were not very interested in helping for the Indian cause. This disappointment led him to go to Germany for soliciting the support of Axis Powers in resolving the question of Indian Independence. Germans who were looking for mustering diplomatic support for their war welcomed â€˜Netajiâ€™ on a highly positive note which was also seen in the cooperative attitude of their allies Italy & Japan.
Hitler proposed that in case of German victory over Soviet Union he would personally march along with â€˜Netajiâ€™ (indicating his full support) from the Caucasus mountain ranges into the frontiers of British India. However since â€˜Netajiâ€™ wanted to take immediate action he proposed to transfer him from Germany to Japan via U-Boat (Submarine) in order to let him assume the control of the Indian National Army which was prepared on a much larger scale in Singapore. Thus in view of the situation wherein the Japanese forces were beckoning the Indian frontiers and the German forces being still far away from there, â€˜Netajiâ€™sâ€™ attention drastically shifted from the Western Front to the Eastern Front of war.
However before his departure â€˜Netajiâ€™ was concerned that the â€˜Freies Indien Legionâ€™ doesnâ€™t becomes a sacrificial pawn regiment in the grand plans of German War Effort. He took promise from the Nazi German authorities to prevent any sort of misuse of the Legion and what facts in historical records tells us is that the promise indeed was kept honorably by Germany.
The account of Indian Soldiers of the Free Indian Legion shows that they were treated much better by the Nazi German officers as compared to the British Officers in their former employment. This comes as a major surprise considering the image of racial biasness which was the normal perception of the world towards the Nazi German Army.
The â€˜Legionâ€™ was always kept away from any sort of German mission involving armed combat. However when the Western front of Europe was anticipating an Allied invasion the â€˜Legionâ€™ was indeed asked to perform light duties in the formation of obstacles along the coastal lines in order to build the grand fortification known popularly as the â€œGreat Atlantic Wall. Besides there were reports suggesting minor armed skirmishes involving the soldiers of Legion when the Allied invasion took place in France. When a gallant officer Lieutenant Ali Khan was martyred he was buried with full military honors by the German Waffen SS who had now undertaken the operational command of the Legion from the Wehrmacht.
Subhash Chandra Bose and Heinrich Himmler, Germany, summer 1942
The members of the â€˜Legionâ€™ then had to retreat as the Allied forces heavily outnumbering the German forces were advancing from everywhere. The German counterattacks and their subsequent victory in Arnhem (Operation Market Garden) gave the retreating columns including the members of legion ample time to seek sanctuary within the boundaries of Germany. However when Germany began to be surrounded by the joint forces of Americans, British ,Soviets etc the remaining soldiers of the â€˜Legionâ€™ decided to cross borders and move to the neutral nation Switzerland in order to escape persecution at the hand of the vengeful Allied forces.
However on their route for escaping via Alps passes they were captured by the Allied forces. It was alleged that many of the captured Indian soldiers were killed in cold blood by the French soldiers. The other remaining soldiers along with their senior personnel were then sent to British India to face the famous Red Fort trial that became a huge national rallying point for the masses to come in full support of these soldiers cause to liberate India.
By then the efforts of â€˜Freies Indien Legionâ€™ and â€˜Indian National Armyâ€™ began to cast its spell on the British. These brave soldiers of both the national liberation armies openly expressed their gladness for what they had done and they expressed not even an ounce of remorse or guilt. Seeing this the Indian soldiers of the British colonial army began to get involved in acts of sporadic mutiny and the mood of the already desperate Indian people began to slowly drift from Gandhiâ€™s Non-violence to â€˜Netajiâ€™sâ€™ call for use of Force to throw out the British.
Great Britain which lay vehemently annihilated in the process of its epic struggle with Nazi Germany began to see that it was not any more feasible to sustain such a huge global empire. The severely battered armed forces and its devastated economy were in no point to amend the situation. The British feared that the amount of radicalization which â€˜Netajiâ€™sâ€™ forces had invigorated into the Indian masses may eventually spiral out into a violent war which would not only result in slaughter of British citizens over there but also bring humiliation of a subsequent defeat. Thus they realized that the political wisdom lied in peacefully giving the freedom to India and ensuring a graceful departure from the country.
Hence the role of â€˜Freies Indien Legionâ€™ and â€˜Indian National Armyâ€™ is of pivotal importance as their painstaking efforts brought in the much required antidote of Fear Psychosis into the war torn British Imperial mindset which ultimately led to India becoming an independent nation. Despite such an unparallel contribution towards the goal of Indian independence although the efforts of the latter army has been acknowledged but the sacrifice of â€˜Freies Indien Legionâ€™ still waits for its due place in the National History of modern India.
The Iron Will: ‘FREIES INDIEN LEGION’ – Reminiscences of a Secret Indian Army in the Nazi Germany.
The Iron Will: ‘FREIES INDIEN LEGION’ – Reminiscences of a Secret Indian Army in the Nazi Germany.
true, but i used to watch a serial, "Bharat Ek Khoj", on Doordarshan during early 90s, when i was in school.
Ray sir might remember, im just trying to bring most of that serial in this thread. but yes, going before 19th century would be a tough work :thumb:
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi popularly known as â€˜Father of the Nationâ€™ was one of the charismatic Indian leaders who fought for the freedom of the country. This great leader was born in Porbandar, Gujarat on Oct 2, 1869. He was the youngest of the three sons of Putlibai and Karamchand Gandhi. He completed his primary studies in Rajkot and was married to Kasturba at the age of 13.
Gandhi with Badashah Khan and Kasturba, the "Frontier Gandhi" :spartak:
In 1891, Gandhi went to London to study Law but after having admitted to Britisah bar he returned to India and began law practice in Bombay. After a span of two years he was called by an Indian company in South Africa to work as a legal advisor. There he found that he was ill-treated and abused because of inferior race and color discrimination. This was a common problem with all Indians. He then decided to throw himself into the freedom struggle to secure rights for Indian people. For this cause, Gandhi stayed in South Africa for almost 25 years. :thumb:
Influenced by the Bhagvad Gita and Hindu beliefs, the Jain religion and the Christian teachings of Leo Tolstoy, Gandhi moved on the path of Satya and Ahimsa. â€˜Satyaâ€™ meaning â€˜truthâ€™ and â€˜ahimsaâ€™ meaning â€˜non-violenceâ€™ were the two weapons that Gandhi used to fight the enemy. He led the campaign in South Africa with the principle of Satyagraha for Indian rights and was arrested many times for his political activities. In 1914, many of Gandhiâ€™s demands were accepted by the Government of the Union of South Africa. After his struggle in South Africa he returned to India and started Non-Cooperation movement there.
Gandhi, after returning to India inspired people to boycott British goods and refuse earthy possessions. This movement was known as Swaraj and was economically significant because Indian home industries were virtually destructed by British industrialists. He advocated renewal of native Indian industries and began to use a spinning wheel as a token of return to simple village life. Thereafter, he constantly began promoting satyagraha, non-violence, non-cooperation and swaraj to achieve independence. Finally, in August 1947, the British were forced to leave India.
He is the one who gave character and shape to Indiaâ€™s freedom struggle and sacrificed his own life for the sake of his countryâ€™s freedom. His major movements include Non-Co-operation movement, Civil Disobedience Movement, Quit India Movement and India Independence. The Salt March is also known as Salt Satyagrah is his noteworthy movement which began with the Dandi March on 12th of March, 1930. This is one of the most significant movements of his which was related to tax resistance and nonviolent protest and organized challenge to the British.
Mahatma Gandhi, symbol of Free India, was assassinated by Nathuram Godse in January 1948. His mortal frame has already turned into ashes years ago but he still lives in the hearts of millions of people. Mahatma Gandhi, an embodiment of eternal love and truth, will live for immortal ages.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi | indianfreedomfighters
Jawaharlal Nehru's contribution in building Modern India
(Leaders of the Non-Aligned Movement: (L to R) PM Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Pres. Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Pres. Gamal Abdel Nasser of United Arab Rep., Pres. Sukarno of Indonesia, & Pres. Tito of Yugoslavia.)
Jawaharlal Nehru, also known as Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, was one of the foremost leaders of Indian freedom struggle. He was the first Prime Minister of independent India. He was a member of the Congress Party that led the freedom movement against British Empire. He was also the chief framer of domestic and international policies between 1947 and 1964. Nehru is widely regarded as the architect of modern India. He set up a Planning Commission, encouraged development of science and technology, and launched three successive five-year plans. His policies led to a sizable growth in agricultural and industrial production. Nehru also played a major role in developing independent India's foreign policy. In 1955 Nehru was awarded with Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour. :ranger:
Jawaharlal Nehru was born on 14 November 1889, to a wealthy Kashmiri Brahmin family in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh. His father Motilal Nehru was a well-known advocate and also a leading politician. Jawaharlal Nehru received education in some of the finest schools and universities of the world. He did his schooling from Harrow College and completed his Law degree from Trinity College, Cambridge. During his stay in London, Nehru was attracted by the ideas of liberalism, socialism and nationalism. In 1912, he had returned to India and joined the Allahabad High Court Bar. He married Kamala Nehru in 1916. On19th November, 1917 she gave birth to Indira Priyadarshini, widely known as Indira Gandhi.
Jawaharlal Nehru was elected President of the Allahabad Municipal Corporation in 1924, and served for two years as the city's chief executive. He resigned in 1926 citing lack of cooperation from civil servants and obstruction from British authorities. From 1926 to 1928, Jawaharlal served as the General Secretary of the All India Congress Committee. In December, 1929 Congress's annual session was held in Lahore and Jawaharlal Nehru was elected as the President of the Congress Party. During that session a resolution demanding India's independence was passed and on January 26, 1930 in Lahore, Jawaharlal Nehru open out free India's flag.
Jawaharlal Nehru was arrested in 1942 during Quit India Movement. Released in 1945, he took a leading part in the negotiations that culminated in the emergence of the dominions of India and Pakistan in August, 1947. In 1947, he became the first Prime Minister of independent India.
Soon after independence, the Indian nation, under his guidance, achieved the first political objective of the renaissance by giving to itself a Constitution proclaiming India a sovereign democratic secular republic. Through his vigorous policy of planned industrialization and economic development, aided by scientific research through a chain of national laboratories and the nationÂ¬wide community project movement, Jawaharlal Nehru has laid firm foundations for the achievement of another important objective of the Indian renaissance, namely, the economic redemption of the Indian masses. All the time he would contemplate over the issues pertaining to the economic sector of the country. In 1951, Jawaharlal Nehru launched the country's "First Five-Year Plan" emphasizing on the increase in the agricultural output. Nehru believed in planned economy for maximum utilization of resources. He did not favour nationalization of private capital. In his scheme of economic development, by increasing business and income taxes mixed economy should play a prominent role. He believed that the both public sector and private sector must help each other in removing poverty and the other basic problems of Indian Society. He realized the importance of setting up mega industries and usher in industrial growth so as to transform the traditional society into a modern one. Nehru felt that the state should play the crucial role in development and attributed high credentials and role to both the bureaucracy and public sector. Nehru wanted the public sector to have commanding heights in the economy. That is why he wanted the public sector to play a vital part in regard to the development of heavy industries like steel and the exploitation of oil resources in India. He encouraged the construction of large irrigation works and the generation of hydro electricity. Tungabhadra Dam, which irrigates 1.03 million acres of land, is a classic example for these projects. By the mid-1960â€™s, as Jawaharlal Nehru has pointed out, India had made commendable progress in the field of Nuclear Research. The Atomic Energy Act was passed by the Constituent Assembly, creating the Atomic Energy Commission. During the early years of independence, India pursued what Nehru called â€œA peaceful nuclear programmeâ€, implying that the programme was developed not to manufacture nuclear weapons, but instead to provide energy to the people. The peaceful use of nuclear energy was the official policy of the Government of India. This point was highlighted in bilateral agreements with Canada, UK, USA and USSR.
Nehru highly concerned on the control of private Industry and State Investment in Industry. In consequence, the Industries Act (1951) was passed to control private industry to work in the interests of state-regulations of private companies along with the Companies Act (1956) to control monopolies. By these policies the Indian economy enjoyed a steady rate of growth at 2.5% per annum.
Jawaharlal Nehru was interested in education for India's children and youth. He is praised for creating a system providing universal primary education, reaching children in the farthest corners of rural India. Nehru oversaw the creation of mass village enrollment programmes and the construction of thousands of schools. Nehru's education policy is also credited for the development of world-class educational institutions such as the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Indian Institutes of Technology, and the Indian Institutes of Management. Adult education centres, vocational and technical schools were also organised for adults, especially in the rural areas.
In making the Indian constitution secular and in providing equal rights to all religious groups Nehru's contribution is significant. Under Nehru, the Indian Parliament enacted many changes to Hindu law to criminalize caste discrimination and increase the legal rights and social freedoms of women. Untouchability Act (1955), Hindu Marriage Act (1955), Hindu Succession Act (1956) were typical examples of a legislation which helped the Hindu society to make a transition from a feudal society to a modern one. Moreover a system of reservations in government services and educational institutions was created to eradicate the social inequalities and disadvantages faced by peoples of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.
Nehru's major contribution lies in the field of foreign policies. As the first Minister for External Affairs, Nehru was responsible for developing an independent foreign policy for the country. In the initial statements explaining India's foreign policy Nehru claimed that it was an independent foreign policy. Reviewing the problem of cold war and bi-polar politics, Nehru designed the equidistance concept towards big powers while engaging with them in all possible fronts. Along with Nassar, Sukarno, Tito, Nehru played a crucial role in shaping the policy of Non-Alignment and institutionalized the Non-Aligned Movement. Nehru wanted that the non-aligned countries should function as a power block; they should share their wealth for their prosperity. NAM had clear objectives that included the gradual decolonization of the world, and a strong statement that the member countries were not party to the ever escalating tension of the Cold War. By his policy of non-alignment and active support to the United Nations OrgaÂ¬nization, he has not only helped to reduce international tensions, but also helped to project an image of India abroad as a creative force for peace and international fellowship.
It is true that Nehru failed on certain areas, aspects and policies. But he played a phenomenal role in providing a strong socioeconomic foundation to India's growth and development. He was a statesman, institution-builder, secularist, pacifist, democrat with scientific and humanist values and temperament. As a true democrat he appreciated dissent and yielded to his criticsâ€™ point of view. He was responsible for taking India to the pride of place among the nations of the world. Being a believer of Mahatma Gandhi, peace and moral values prevailed on him tremendously. His own vision and instinct, besides the international exposure he received, influenced his perspectives considerably. Modern India owes a great to this unique nation-builder of the 20th century.
Jawaharlal Nehru's Contribution In Building Modern India. Article - News And Life Style Politics Articles
Lal Bahadur Shastri
Lal Bahadur Shastri (pronounced [laËl bÉ™ËˆÉ¦aËdÌªÊŠr ËˆÊƒaËstÌªri]; About this sound listen (helpÂ·info), 2 October 1904 â€“ 11 January 1966) was the second Prime Minister of the Republic of India and a leader of the Indian National Congress party.
Shastri joined the Indian independence movement in the 1920s. Deeply impressed and influenced by Mahatma Gandhi, he became a loyal follower, first of Gandhi, and then of Jawaharlal Nehru. Following independence in 1947, he joined the latter's government and became one of Prime Minister Nehru's principal lieutenants, first as Railways Minister (1951â€“56), and then in a variety of other functions, including Home Minister. Shastri was chosen as Nehru's successor owing to his adherence to Nehruvian socialism after Nehru's daughter Indira Gandhi turned down Congress President K. Kamaraj's offer of premiership.
Shastri as Prime Minister continued Nehru's policies of non-alignment and socialism. He became a national hero following the victory in the Indo-Pakistan War of 1965. His slogan of "Jai Jawan Jai Kisan" ("Hail the soldier, Hail the farmer") became very popular during the war and is remembered even today. The war was formally ended in the Tashkent Agreement of 10 January 1966; he died the following day, still in Tashkent, of a heart attack.
Shastri, who belonged to the Kayastha caste, dropped his surname Srivastava as it indicated his caste and he was against the caste system, a major principle of the Gandhian movement. Shastri also enrolled himself as a life member of the Servants of the People Society and began to work for the upliftment of the Harijans under Gandhi's direction at Muzaffarpur. Later he became the President of the Society.
Shastri continued Nehru's socialist economic policies with central planning. He promoted the White Revolution â€“ a national campaign to increase the production and supply of milk â€“ by supporting the Amul milk co-operative of Anand, Gujarat and creating the National Dairy Development Board. While speaking on the chronic food shortages across the country, Shastri urged people to voluntarily give up one meal so that the saved food could be distributed to the affected populace. During the 22-day war with Pakistan in 1965, Shastri created the slogan of "Jai Jawan Jai Kisan" ("Hail the soldier, Hail the farmer"), underlining the need to boost India's food production. Shastri also promoted the Green Revolution. Though he was a socialist, Shastri stated that India cannot have a regimented type of economy.
Shastri joined the Indian independence movement in 1921. His early activities included participation in the non-cooperation movement for which he was jailed briefly by the British. He was let off as he was then still a minor.
Shastri participated in the Salt Satyagraha in 1930. He was imprisoned for two and a half years. Later, he worked as the Organizing Secretary of the Parliamentary Board of U.P. in 1937. In 1940, he was sent to prison for one year, for offering individual Satyagraha support to the freedom movement. :ranger:
On 8 August 1942, Mahatma Gandhi issued the Quit India speech at Gowalia Tank in Mumbai, demanding that the British leave India. Shastri, who had just then come out after a year in prison, travelled to Allahabad. For a week, he sent instructions to the freedom fighters from Jawaharlal Nehru's home, Anand Bhavan. A few days later, he was arrested and imprisoned until 1946. Shastri spent almost nine years in jail in total. During his stays in prison, he spent time reading books and became familiar with the works of western philosophers, revolutionaries and social reformers.
Lal Bahadur Shastri - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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