BASIC FIELDCRAFT CAMOUFLAGE AND CONCEALMENT The enemy is looking for you. Do not make it easy for them; ensure you merge into your surroundings as much as possible. Remember, he who sees the opposition first without being seen has the advantage. Shape. Blend in with your surrounding and break up your distinctive human shape as much as possible. Shadow. Keep in the shadows of larger objects and ensure your shadow is not alerting the enemy to your location. Silhouette. Do not stand against the skyline or lean out of windows. Texture. Do not contrast with your surrounding and ensure neither you nor your equipment shines. Spacing. Keep spread out. Avoid regular spacing of personnel; keep vehicles and tents etc under cam nets. Movement. Movement must be slow and cautious. Remember the human eye is drawn to fast movement, especially at night. Successful camouflage and concealment requires your self-discipline Do not sit in the sun, but remain in shadow when in a position likely to be overlooked by the enemy. At night do not smoke, light fires, or use torch light unless permission is given and it is absolutely necessary. Always follow the briefed track plans when in harbour areas. Wear and replace cam cream as the threat dictates. REACTING TO SMALL ARMS ATTACK You need to able to recognise an attack directed against you and take the correct actions to protect yourself and return fire if appropriate. The mnemonic used is as follows, DASH, DOWN, CRAWL, OBSERVE, SIGHTS, FIRE. TAKE COVER Dash to the nearest cover. Get Down, crawl into the position and observe. Check that the weapon sights are correctly set and fire at any visible enemy (ROE permitting). ADOPTING A FIRE POSITION The ideal fire position offers: Full use of personal weapons. Protection from high explosive and small arms fire. Cover from view and a concealed route in and out. An unobstructed view of a wide and deep arc of fire. BASIC FIELDCRAFT LOCATING THE FIRER WHY THINGS ARE SEEN Shape. Shadow. Silhouette. Texture Spacing Movement SCANNING AND SEARCHING Divide ground into areas of foreground, middle distance and distance. Scan each area horizontally, starting with the foreground, using short overlapping movements. Move the head rather than just the eyes to minimise fatigue, but be aware of giving your position away by sudden movement. NIGHT VISON Night adaptation of the eyes takes 30-45 minutes. Work using red light, if suitable to the task, as this will not affect your night adaptation. Objects can be seen better at night if you do not stare straight at them. Look above, below or to the side of an object you are observing. JUDGING DISTANCE An object may seem closer than it actually is under the following conditions. The light is bright or the sun is shining from behind the observer. It is larger in size than other object surrounding it. It is higher than the observer. An object may seem further away than it actually is under the following conditions. The light is poor or the sun in directly in front of the observer. It is smaller than the objects around it. You are looking across a valley or down a street. You are lying down METHODS OF JUNDING DISTANCE UNIT OF MEASURE All ground between you and the target must be visible to use this method. Any unit of measure that is familiar to you can be used, for example a football pitch which is approximately 100 metres long. Estimate how many units of this measure can be placed between your position and the target. This method is not reliable for ranges in excess of 400 metres. APPERANCE METHOD This method compares an object with its surroundings. You must know what objects look like at various distances. A good indication is given by the amount of detail visible. At 100 metres – a person is clear in all detail. At 200 metres – a person is clear in all detail, the colour of the skin and equipment is identifiable but not 100% clear. At 300 metres – a clear body outline can be seen, face colour is visible but all other details are blurred. AIDS TO JUDGING DISTANCE KEY RANGES If the distance to an area or point is already known, the distance may be used as a key range. It is possible to use the key range to judge the distance to a nearby area or object. HALVING Select an object or an area in a direct line, halfway between you and the target, and estimate the range to this midpoint. You can then double the estimation to produce the range to the target. BRACKETING Use one of the 2 methods of judging distance to estimate: The maximum possible distance to the target. The minimum possible distance to the target. Take the distance to the target as midway between your maximum and minimum estimates. TARGET INDICATION ARC OF FIRE This is a know area where targets are likely to be. It is indicated in the following sequence: Axis. The centre of the arc. Left and Right Arc. Indicate the extent of the arc. Reference Points. Prominent and permanent objects that are given a name and range i.e., a church in the bottom right corner of the arc would be known as: Church – range 200. DIRECT METHOD This method is used to indicate obvious targets. The range, where to look and a description are given. Example, 100 – Half left – 2 enemy in open. REFERENCE POINT METHOD Used to indicate less obvious targets. It may be used together with the direct method and words such as above, below, slightly, left or right. Example, 300 – Gate (reference point) – 1 man by each gatepost. CLOCK-RAY METHOD This method is used to indicate less obvious targets that may hard to locate using the other methods discussed in this guide. Rather than using the location of the target on it’s own we use an obvious reference point such as a signpost, bridge, gate, or other such object as a reference. Then by using an imaginary clock face over that object you can give an indication to the target itself. Example, Signpost – Left 9 o’clock – bushes – left edge of bushes – 2 enemy. REACTION TO FIRE CONTROL ORDERS Having identified a target using the methods in the previous section, a fire control order is given by the commander. Fire Control Orders (FCO) are used to bring fire to bear on the enemy quickly and effectively. The sequence of an FCO is as follows (GRIT): GROUP. Indicates who is being addressed: “Section”, “Fire Team”, “Number 2 Rifleman”, “Gun Group”, etc. RANGE. This indicates the distance to the target in metres. “200”, “300”, etc. INDICATION. This indicates where and what to look for. TYPE OF FIRE: Deliberate. (1 shot every 6 seconds) used for long range or sustained engagements. Rapid. (1 shot every 2 seconds) most commonly used type of fire. Ideal for keeping the enemies head down while not using excessive ammunition. Burst. (2-3 Round bursts on automatic) Used for close range engagements or where a high volume of fire is necessary. Watch and Shoot. Used when the commander wishes members of the section to fire at any enemy they see at the given location without further instruction. TYPES OF FIRE CONTROL ORDERS FULL Given if there if sufficient time. “Section – 300 – signpost – left 9 o’clock – bushes – left edge of bushes – 2 enemy – fire” BRIEF Given when there is little time and the target is obvious. “Delta fire team – quarter right – rapid – fire”. DELAYED Given when the movements of friendly forces or the enemy are known or can be guessed. “Section – 300 – signpost – right 3 o’clock – 2 trees – gap in trees – await my order………fire”. INDIVIDUAL Given when it is impractical for the commander to control the time to open fire so he passes the responsibility to the individual(s) concerned. “Number 2 and 3 – 300 – gate – enemy crossing gate left to right – watch and shoot”.