Battle fieldcraft

Discussion in 'Indian Army' started by prashant2a, Oct 10, 2009.

  1. prashant2a

    prashant2a Regular Member

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    BASIC FIELDCRAFT

    CAMOUFLAGE AND CONCEALMENT
    The enemy is looking for you. Do not make it easy for them; ensure you merge into your
    surroundings as much as possible. Remember, he who sees the opposition first without
    being seen has the advantage.
    Shape. Blend in with your surrounding and break up your distinctive human
    shape as much as possible.
    Shadow. Keep in the shadows of larger objects and ensure your shadow is not
    alerting the enemy to your location.
    Silhouette. Do not stand against the skyline or lean out of windows.
    Texture. Do not contrast with your surrounding and ensure neither you nor your
    equipment shines.
    Spacing. Keep spread out. Avoid regular spacing of personnel; keep vehicles
    and tents etc under cam nets.
    Movement. Movement must be slow and cautious. Remember the human eye is
    drawn to fast movement, especially at night.

    Successful camouflage and concealment requires your self-discipline
    Do not sit in the sun, but remain in shadow when in a position likely to be
    overlooked by the enemy.
    At night do not smoke, light fires, or use torch light unless permission is given
    and it is absolutely necessary.
    Always follow the briefed track plans when in harbour areas.
    Wear and replace cam cream as the threat dictates.
    REACTING TO SMALL ARMS ATTACK
    You need to able to recognise an attack directed against you and take the correct actions
    to protect yourself and return fire if appropriate.
    The mnemonic used is as follows,
    DASH, DOWN, CRAWL, OBSERVE, SIGHTS, FIRE.
    TAKE COVER
    Dash to the nearest cover.
    Get Down, crawl into the position and observe.
    Check that the weapon sights are correctly set and fire at any visible enemy (ROE
    permitting).
    ADOPTING A FIRE POSITION
    The ideal fire position offers:
    Full use of personal weapons.
    Protection from high explosive and small arms fire.
    Cover from view and a concealed route in and out.
    An unobstructed view of a wide and deep arc of fire.
    BASIC FIELDCRAFT

    LOCATING THE FIRER
    WHY THINGS ARE SEEN
    Shape.
    Shadow.
    Silhouette.
    Texture
    Spacing
    Movement
    SCANNING AND SEARCHING Divide ground into areas of foreground, middle distance and distance.
    Scan each area horizontally, starting with the foreground, using short overlapping
    movements.
    Move the head rather than just the eyes to minimise fatigue, but be aware of
    giving your position away by sudden movement.
    NIGHT VISON
    Night adaptation of the eyes takes 30-45 minutes.
    Work using red light, if suitable to the task, as this will not affect your night
    adaptation.
    Objects can be seen better at night if you do not stare straight at them. Look
    above, below or to the side of an object you are observing.

    JUDGING DISTANCE
    An object may seem closer than it actually is under the following conditions.
    The light is bright or the sun is shining from behind the observer.
    It is larger in size than other object surrounding it.
    It is higher than the observer.
    An object may seem further away than it actually is under the following conditions.
    The light is poor or the sun in directly in front of the observer.
    It is smaller than the objects around it.
    You are looking across a valley or down a street.
    You are lying down
    METHODS OF JUNDING DISTANCE
    UNIT OF MEASURE
    All ground between you and the target must be visible to use this method.
    Any unit of measure that is familiar to you can be used, for example a football
    pitch which is approximately 100 metres long.
    Estimate how many units of this measure can be placed between your position and
    the target.
    This method is not reliable for ranges in excess of 400 metres.

    APPERANCE METHOD

    This method compares an object with its surroundings.
    You must know what objects look like at various distances.
    A good indication is given by the amount of detail visible.
    At 100 metres – a person is clear in all detail.
    At 200 metres – a person is clear in all detail, the colour of the skin and
    equipment is identifiable but not 100% clear.
    At 300 metres – a clear body outline can be seen, face colour is visible but
    all other details are blurred.
    AIDS TO JUDGING DISTANCE
    KEY RANGES

    If the distance to an area or point is already known, the distance may be used as a key
    range. It is possible to use the key range to judge the distance to a nearby area or object.

    HALVING
    Select an object or an area in a direct line, halfway between you and the target, and
    estimate the range to this midpoint. You can then double the estimation to produce the
    range to the target.
    BRACKETING
    Use one of the 2 methods of judging distance to estimate:
    The maximum possible distance to the target.
    The minimum possible distance to the target.
    Take the distance to the target as midway between your maximum and minimum
    estimates.

    TARGET INDICATION
    ARC OF FIRE
    This is a know area where targets are likely to be. It is indicated in the following
    sequence:
    Axis. The centre of the arc.
    Left and Right Arc. Indicate the extent of the arc.
    Reference Points. Prominent and permanent objects that are given a name and
    range i.e., a church in the bottom right corner of the arc would be known as:
    Church – range 200.
    DIRECT METHOD
    This method is used to indicate obvious targets. The range, where to look and a
    description are given.
    Example,
    100 – Half left – 2 enemy in open.
    REFERENCE POINT METHOD
    Used to indicate less obvious targets. It may be used together with the direct method and
    words such as above, below, slightly, left or right.
    Example,
    300 – Gate (reference point) – 1 man by each gatepost.

    CLOCK-RAY METHOD
    This method is used to indicate less obvious targets that may hard to locate using the
    other methods discussed in this guide. Rather than using the location of the target on it’s
    own we use an obvious reference point such as a signpost, bridge, gate, or other such
    object as a reference. Then by using an imaginary clock face over that object you can
    give an indication to the target itself.
    Example,
    Signpost – Left 9 o’clock – bushes – left edge of bushes – 2 enemy.
    REACTION TO FIRE CONTROL ORDERS
    Having identified a target using the methods in the previous section, a fire control order is
    given by the commander. Fire Control Orders (FCO) are used to bring fire to bear on the
    enemy quickly and effectively.
    The sequence of an FCO is as follows (GRIT):
    GROUP. Indicates who is being addressed: “Section”, “Fire Team”, “Number 2
    Rifleman”, “Gun Group”, etc.
    RANGE. This indicates the distance to the target in metres. “200”, “300”, etc.
    INDICATION. This indicates where and what to look for.
    TYPE OF FIRE:
    Deliberate. (1 shot every 6 seconds) used for long range or
    sustained engagements.
    Rapid. (1 shot every 2 seconds) most commonly used type of
    fire. Ideal for keeping the enemies head down while not using
    excessive ammunition.
    Burst. (2-3 Round bursts on automatic) Used for close range
    engagements or where a high volume of fire is necessary.
    Watch and Shoot. Used when the commander wishes members
    of the section to fire at any enemy they see at the given location
    without further instruction.

    TYPES OF FIRE CONTROL ORDERS
    FULL
    Given if there if sufficient time. “Section – 300 – signpost – left 9 o’clock – bushes – left
    edge of bushes – 2 enemy – fire”
    BRIEF
    Given when there is little time and the target is obvious. “Delta fire team – quarter right
    – rapid – fire”.
    DELAYED
    Given when the movements of friendly forces or the enemy are known or can be guessed.
    “Section – 300 – signpost – right 3 o’clock – 2 trees – gap in trees – await my
    order………fire”.
    INDIVIDUAL
    Given when it is impractical for the commander to control the time to open fire so he
    passes the responsibility to the individual(s) concerned. “Number 2 and 3 – 300 – gate –
    enemy crossing gate left to right – watch and shoot”.
     
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  3. bhramos

    bhramos Elite Member Elite Member

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    good info brother,
    better would be post it with pics
     

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