ASW surface fleets vs submarines

Discussion in 'Indian Navy' started by blade, Nov 17, 2009.

  1. blade

    blade Regular Member

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    Ever since out independence submarine fleet has been one of the most neglected areas of our defence planning. Even after making her entry into 21rst century with a economic revolution to bolster its status in the globe, Indian Navy still seems to be under the dilemma on this issue. Prolonged delay in several submarine related projects has led IN into an extreamly precarious situation right now. With an aging fleet of 10 kilo's Indian navy striving hard to maintain its otherwise far superior status against pakistan. Even as per experts Indian navy still maintains some advange in term of the over all fire power compared to chinese surface fleet but on the otherside both china and pakistan is posing a great submarine threat to indian navy. The latest endevour of indian navy to procure new scorpene subs or the RFP for the next generation subs are often misunderstood as a counter measure againt pakistani small but smart submarine fleet or against the overwelmingly vast chinese submarine zoo which currently boasts around 55 conventional and 10 nuke subs of different ages and classes. Now the matter of fact is that a submarine can only provide a similar counter threat to pakistani and chinese surface fleet and will not be a counter measure against the enemy submarine frotilla. The hunter killers are basically a mechine that was built to destroy SSN & SSBN whereas they are not much effective against quiet and non radiant deisel submarines.
    There exists almost no real time data of any post WW II modern day ASW battle so almost none of the current sonar techs are really validated on the ground. The different modal change that is required to scan at different depths and the time lapse in 360 degree scanning offers an enemy submarine formation with some real opportunity to break into the denger zone of a surface combatant. A mix of active passive radar only offers a partial solution to this worry.
    Submarine stealth not being as critical a technology as fighter jet stealth, making long strides in short time and thus out pacing the developement of sonar tech.
    We must remember that in 71's war India saw her biggest wartime loss as one of her frigates fell prey to sole pakistani submarine.Currently india is working hard and indigenous to sail a fleet of around 35 ASW stealth frigates& corvatte
    in comming 10 years. Keeping this mind its will be very appropriate to discuss the effectiveness of modern day sonars and other ASW armaments aginst the stealthy silent diesel submaries.http://trishulgroup.blogspot.com/2008/10/what-it-takes-to-wage-undersea-warfare.html
     
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  3. icecoolben

    icecoolben Regular Member

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    Our target for diesel electric subs should be u-214 standard. I wouldn't be suprised if navy called off scorpene deal to go for those subs as they are more complacent with our current infrastructure. Those sub makers are the pioneers of air independent propulsion. We need those kind of tech. Reading into recent german interest to invest in indian ship building it should be pretty easy if v play our cards right.
     
  4. Atul

    Atul Founding Member

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    The U-214 is a class in it self, but we should remember the same is being offered to the Pakistan Navy?

    & i don't see the Scorpene project being called off, a huge investment is already being made in the same.
     
  5. bengalraider

    bengalraider DFI Technocrat Stars and Ambassadors

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    The IN came rather late to the submarine scene investing more in surface assets than the Submarine arm. The IN got it's first submarine the INS KALVARI(Foxtrot) only in 1967, whereas the PN had it's first submarines by 1963. as far as ASW assets were concerned India got it's first ASW frigates from Britain 1961 however these had a shorter sonar range and shorter range ASW weapons than Pakistani submarines (Daphne class) this led to one of these ships the INS Khukri being sunk by the PNS ghazi during the 1971 war. India got better anti-sub frigates (soviet petya class)in 1968 and the seaking helicopters by 1971.The IN always followed the american strategy of sea control via surface assets while the PN always followed the soviet strategy of sea denial via underwater assets.

    by the way the Russian LADA class is slated to use the same kind of AIP(membrane based fuel cell) as the Type 214.
     
  6. icecoolben

    icecoolben Regular Member

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    The russian seem hell bent on building the ships in their own yard. Though costly europeon builders are ready to build the sub wholly in india. These are somethings that irk me about russian, they just want to be too special. The amur class couldn't make it to p-76a for the same reason.
     
  7. wild goose

    wild goose Regular Member

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    An old article from Frontline

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Volume 22 - Issue 20, Sep. 24 - Oct. 07, 2005
    India's National Magazine
    from the publishers of THE HINDU
    Home • Contents


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    DEFENCE

    The Scorpene deal

    JOHN CHERIAN
    in New Delhi


    The Scorpene submarine deal India signed with France has had its share of controversy with German officials complaining that HDW, the German consortium, was not allowed to bid for the contract.


    MYCHELE DANIAU/AFP

    At the DCN Shipyard at Cherbourg, France, in October 2003, a Scorpene-type submarine under construction.

    THE announcement of the Indian government's decision to acquire the French-made Scorpene submarines was meant to coincide with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's visit to France. The decision on the $3-billion deal for six Scorpene submarines was announced formally after the meeting between Manmohan Singh and President Jacques Chirac in Paris on September 12. The French President also indicated during the meeting that his government would work closely with the United States and the United Kingdom to remove the restrictions on the export of nuclear reactors to India.

    Chirac also welcomed the Indian decision to go in for 43 Airbus planes for Indian Airlines, the country's domestic carrier. The French were upset when the Indian government ignored the European consortium and opted for American Boeing commercial jets to refurbish the national carrier Air-India's ageing fleet. The Airbus deal is worth $2.4 billion.

    Germany too has reasons to be happy with Indian Airlines deal as it is part of the European consortium. However, the Germans are extremely unhappy with the Scorpene deal. German officials said they were not even allowed to bid for the contract. They also emphasised that the Indian government's new defence procurement policy prohibited single-vendor supply for capital procurements. In fact, there was not even the bidding process, a normal practice when big international defence deals are negotiated. Germany's HDW was blacklisted by the Indian government for an unprecedented length of time as a case filed by the CBI dragged on in Indian courts. The case was closed only in early 2004, after 23 years. German officials hinted that vested interests saw to it that the matter remained unresolved so that HDW would remain blacklisted.

    Like all big defence deals that India has entered into in recent years, the Scorpene deal has also generated its share of controversy. The French had lobbied for the deal for quite some time. The previous National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government had decided on the French-made submarines overlooking the claims of German and Russian manufacturers. The former National Security Adviser, Brajesh Mishra, had reportedly taken a personal interest in the matter. The NDA government decided to diversify arms purchases so as to gain the maximum political leverage in key countries.

    Germany and Russia were the traditional suppliers of submarines for the Indian Navy. Companies from these countries had offered submarines, which they claimed were qualitatively better than the Scorpene, at a much cheaper price. The German company HDW/MAN Ferrostal had proposed a significantly lower price for the design and construction of its Class-214 submarines. According to German officials, only one company was allowed to bid for the Indian Navy's new submarine project. The officials said that all that they wanted was a "level playing field" so that one company could not "fix the price". The German company claimed that its product was not only superior to the Scorpene but also 25-30 per cent cheaper. The Indian Navy has said that it seriously considered the HDW submarine bid in 2002.



    FRANCK PREVEL/REUTERS

    French President Jacques Chirac and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh outside the Elysee Palace in Paris on September 12.

    The German company sold more than 20 Class-214 submarines recently to South Korea, Portugal, Italy and Greece. Venezuela recently signed a contract to buy the German submarines. The Class-214 submarine's main selling point is HDW's capability to build submarines with an integrated air independent propulsion (AIP) system based on the Fuel Cell technology. According to German officials, no other submarine in the same class has the capability to remain submerged for as long a period as the Class-214.

    According to experts, the AIP system is essential for any Navy having blue water aspirations. The Germans claim that only they have the AIP technology and the Indian Navy has not taken this into account. The endurance of conventional diesel submarines is limited by the capacity of the electric batteries that power them when submerged. They have to come up periodically to charge their batteries, making them vulnerable to hostile anti-submarine forces.

    The Class-214 type also has the submarine-to-surface missile launching capability, including the capability to launch the Russian Klub missiles used by the Indian Navy. One of the reasons given by the Indian Navy for preferring the Scorpene is that the others lacked the systems to launch Russian- and American-made missiles. Another reason it gave for preferring the Scorpene was that the deal also included the Exocet missiles, a proven weapon. The German manufacturers claimed that one reason why Greece, South Korea, Portugal and Italy preferred the Class-214 was because of the favourable delivery schedule.

    The German consortium had indicated to the Indian Navy that it could deliver the submarines within 60 months. As an additional incentive, it consortium had offered to supply more Class-209 type submarines, which are already in operation with the Indian Navy, to meet any shortfall in India's submarine forces. The Indian Navy had argued forcefully for an urgent decision on the Scorpenes to maintain force levels. Currently the Navy has 16 submarines. Two of these are at the fag end of their service and due for replacement. Ten are of Russian make, of the Foxtrot and Kilo class, dating to the Soviet era. The Indian Navy has embarked on an ambitious submarine programme, Project 75, which envisages the manufacture of 24 submarines in the next 30 years.

    German officials pointed out that two of India's Class-209 type submarines were built under a transfer-of-technology agreement with the Mazagon Dockyards Limited (MDL) in the 1980s. Under the contract with the French, three of the Scorpene submarines will be produced at Mazagon docks. The German officials pointed out that there was a lot of commonality between the Class-209 and the Class-214. They said that had the Indian government opted for the Class-214, there could have been a lot of savings related to infrastructure investments, spare parts supplies and managerial matters. HDW officials claimed that the Indian Navy was very happy with the Class-209 submarines.

    The Germans also claimed that the Scorpene was not a proven boat like their product. The Class-214 was in operation with the navies of many countries. HDW is the world market leader in conventional submarines, garnering around 80 per cent of the global sales. Besides India, the French are selling the Scorpene to Chile and Malaysia.

    The Germans also said that India stood to lose more than a billion dollars in investment in defence and non-defence industries. The French have made no such explicit commitments. Defence deals in the post-Cold War period have been characterised by lucrative add-ons, known as "offset deals". South Africa's recent defence deals are illustrations. Countries signing defence deals with South Africa have to commit huge investments in the social sector. In 1999, South Africa negotiated an arms package deal worth nearly 350 per cent of the contract value.
     
  8. blade

    blade Regular Member

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    Thanks for the post but please someone start writing about the real ASW warfare technologies and not just abotu submarines or frigated and covettes isolatedly. I think we are not sticking to the basic need of the post. Its a very vital point of discussion so everyone is requested to contribute how ever miniscule it might be. Thank again.
     
  9. wild goose

    wild goose Regular Member

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    India enhances anti-submarine warfare capability


    S. Anandan


    Kochi: Even as Pakistan prides itself as the first South Asian country to commission into service a diesel-electric submarine, PNS Hamza, which has an air-independent propulsion system, India is on the threshold of perfecting its indigenous state-of-the-art underwater surveillance mechanism as part of its Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) programme.

    Nagan, the low frequency active-cum-passive towed array sonar system developed by the Naval Physical and Oceanographic Laboratory (NPOL), Kochi, with support from industrial partners such as Bharat Electronics (BE), Larsen and Toubro (L&T), Uniflex Cables and Keltron, is in the advanced stage of user evaluation trials.

    Presently, the Navy operates passive only towed array sonar system from Thales (France) onboard a few platforms such as INS Mumbai, a Delhi-class guided missile destroyer.

    “Nagan marks a major technological breakthrough as it is capable of long-range detection. It is meant for fitment onboard surface ships,” NPOL Director S. Ananthanarayanan told The Hindu. The NPOL, along with the Naval Science and Technological Laboratory (NSTL), Visakhapatnam, had earlier developed Maareech, an anti-torpedo system with towed and expendable decoys. The Hindu has learnt that the Navy has already placed orders with BE for three torpedo defence systems that would be installed on ships at the Mazagaon Dock Limited.

    Nagan, however, is a more complex system. “Towed array sonar system consists of a sensor array that is towed behind a submarine or surface ship. It is basically a long array of hydrophones that is trailed behind the ship using a long cable when deployed. The hydrophones are placed at equal distance on the array. This sonar is much more effective in detecting and classifying the vessels being tracked at variable depths, as noise due to turbulence of own-ship propulsion will not corrupt the signals received from the target,” said Mr. Ananthanarayanan.

    “Anti-submarine warfare addresses the technological challenges of detecting quieter targets in increasingly noisy environment and the issues of detection and decoying of torpedoes. Development of passive towed array sonars during the last two decades has increased detection ranges against relatively silent submarines by an order of magnitude over the ranges obtained by the commonly used hull-mounted active sonars. Indigenous development of towed arrays over the past two decades has led to substantial competence build-up and growth of several Indian industries, in the field of electro-hydraulic winches, high density underwater connectors, electro-opto-mechanical tow cables, acoustic sensors, electronic cabinets, high performance polymer strength members and the like.”

    Challenges in towed array systems lie in the deployment and retrieval of array and the understanding of the dynamic interplay of oceanic conditions and tactical scenarios. Snapping of fibre optic cable because of hydrodynamic drag and excessive deployment, and retrieval time had been major issues in the initial stages. Those, however, have been overcome.

    Nagan was tested on board an offshore patrol vessel and the trials were successful.

    The Hindu : National : India enhances anti-submarine warfare capability
     
  10. blade

    blade Regular Member

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    By Ajai Shukla

    Business Standard, 1st August 09

    Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers, Kolkata



    In the hot Kolkata sun, on the banks of the Hooghly River, craftsmen from Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers (GRSE) swarm over what will be the Indian Navy’s most high-tech stealth warship. For GRSE, the navy’s order for four anti-submarine warfare (ASW) corvettes is its flagship project. But Project 28, as it is termed, is two years behind schedule.



    The first corvette was to join the fleet early next year. Business Standard discovered, during a first-ever media visit to this secretive project, that it will be delivered only in June 2012. The other three corvettes of Project 28 will follow at one-year intervals.



    The major reason for the delay: the Indian Navy has stipulated such unprecedented standards of stealth for every piece of equipment on board that suppliers have struggled to develop engines, transmission, air-conditioning and power-generating systems that work silently enough to meet those requirements. Furthermore, the navy mandated that Indian suppliers would provide much of that equipment.



    The Project 28 corvettes are 2500-tonne warships that will protect Indian Navy battle groups and coastal installations from lurking enemy submarines. In the deadly cat-and-mouse game between ASW corvettes and submarines, the stealthier vessel is usually the winner, detecting and destroying its opponent after sneaking up undetected. The challenge of Project 28 has been to minimise vibrations and noise from the ship’s machinery, propellers, and from water swirling past the hull.



    Success has come late in developing some of this equipment. The Kirloskar group has delivered the engines, albeit after a delay. Earlier this year, DCNS of France supplied the Raft Mounted Gearbox, which almost completely suppresses noise from the power pack. But Wartsila India is still struggling to reduce vibration in the four diesel alternators that will power the corvette’s electronics.



    Once all this is in place, six huge spaces will have to be cut open in the corvette’s hull, through which giant cranes will lower monster-sized equipment like the 65-tonne engines. Then the hull will be welded shut once again.



    For the navy, which has implemented indigenisation as something of a religion --- the Naval Headquarters includes a full-fledged Directorate of Indigenisation --- the delay in Project 28 is a regrettable, but acceptable, consequence of its twin objectives: building cutting edge warships and, simultaneously, developing Indian warship building industry.



    The Navy Chief, Admiral Sureesh Mehta told Business Standard that the navy had carefully laid down stealth standards that were absolutely necessary in war. Admiral Mehta explained, “We cannot compromise operational requirements for suppliers who are having difficulties meeting standards. We cannot come second in war.”



    The navy’s top designer, Rear Admiral MK Badhwar, says the navy is determined to nurture an Indian supplier base, to develop increasingly high-tech products for warships. He points out, “Initially, they (the private companies) had real problems in meeting the sophistication levels that we were demanding. But we insisted and now most of them have done so. This is vital for an indigenous shipbuilding industry.”



    All this has taken the cost of Project 28 from a sanctioned Rs 2800 crores (Rs 700 crores per corvette), to an estimated Rs 7000 crores now. This is approximately in line with cost increases for previous Indian-built warships.



    GRSE’s Chairman and Managing Director, Rear Admiral KC Sekhar explains, “Fortunately our shipyard will not take a financial hit, since this was a cost-plus contract (in which the actual cost of construction of the first ship will be the basis for paying for the entire project). But we have learned valuable lessons. The complexity of the project was totally underestimated.”



    The Project 28 corvettes, when they join the navy’s fleet, will be silent and heavily armed. An Otomelara Super Rapid Gun Mount (SRGM) on the bow can pour 76 millimetre shells onto aerial and surface targets. Flanking it will be two Indigenous Rocket Launchers (IRLs) that can fire at both submarines and ships. Submarines can also be engaged through six torpedo tubes. Two AK 630 Gatling guns, one on either side, can shoot down attacking aircraft. Finally, vertically launched missiles are likely to be mounted for engaging aerial targets.


    http://ajaishukla.blogspot.com/2009/08/project-28-prestigious-indian-anti.html [ just read the article and never bother to believe anything that mr. ajay sukla and others caim in their personal conversation, those are full of misconceptions & wrong
    claims]
     
  11. sandeepdg

    sandeepdg Senior Member Senior Member

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    In the future, the IN should induct only advanced stealth frigates and destroyers and not conventional ones to give us advantage against the Chinese and Pakistani navies. Also, we should now concentrate on more SSNs for ASW purposes, other than conventional diesel-electric subs.
     
  12. blade

    blade Regular Member

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    Sir, The main problem is SSGN's will not provide enough ASW capability against very very stealthy diesel submarines mainly bacause of three issues.
    1. achieving enought stealth for an SSGN is an extremely difficult and advenced subject.
    2. Numarically conventional subs will always remain far superior.
    3. risk reward ratio favor diesel subs heavily. Enemy forces and sacrifice as many as 2 submarine( conventional ) & one frigate to take out 1 indian SSGN.

    So the most viable solution to ASW capability from indian perspective would remain to be P 28 corvettes or similar ships for a long time to come. We need some real break throughs in sonar technology to address this urgent need. Just have a look at the chinese submarine frotilla cromprised of 60 odd subs !!! Thank god these boats dont have the range to come in the fray until china succeeds in its string of pearl strategy by clearing near by naval bases.
     
  13. bsn4u1985

    bsn4u1985 Regular Member

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    The military submarine is still a threat, so ASW remains a key to obtaining sea control. Neutralizing the SSBN has been a key driver and this still remains. However, non-nuclear powered submarines have become increasingly important. Though the diesel-electric submarine continues to dominate in numbers, several alternative technologies now exist to enhance the endurance of small submarines. Previously the emphasis had been largely on deep water operation but this has now switched to littoral operation where ASW is generally more difficult.

    Submarines are the main ASW platform because of their ability to change depth and their quietness, which aids detection.
     
  14. sandeepdg

    sandeepdg Senior Member Senior Member

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    The Brits have been the pioneer in the ASW field and have probably the best ASW capability in the world owing to their long and rich experience. We should develop frigates of similar type to the Type 23 frigates operated by the Royal Navy and equip ships with more ASW helicopters like KA31 and the more advanced AW101 Merlin.
     
    blade likes this.
  15. bengalraider

    bengalraider DFI Technocrat Stars and Ambassadors

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    Out of these 60 boats only the Yuan, kilo shang and jin class boats can pose any credible threat to indian submarines & warships in toto around 20 boats.
    . The Song class suffers from serious design flaws,The ming and romeo class boats are 1950's soviet technology.The Xia and Han class boats are harbour queens.even including the Song class the real chinese ocean going war worthy submarine force stands at 36 boats. i agree india is far behind in numbers but we are acquiring far more advanced platforms in the shape of the Scorpene and the future SSK programs.
     
  16. enlightened1

    enlightened1 Member of The Month JANUARY 2010

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  17. bengalraider

    bengalraider DFI Technocrat Stars and Ambassadors

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    more on chinese submarines

    Chinese Submarine Patrols Doubled in 2008


    By Hans M. Kristensen

    Chinese attack submarines sailed on more patrols in 2008 than ever before, according to information obtained by Federation of American Scientists from U.S. naval intelligence.

    The information, which was declassified by U.S. naval intelligence in response to a Freedom of Information Act request from the Federation of American Scientists, shows that China’s fleet of more than 50 attack submarines conducted 12 patrols in 2008, twice the number of patrols conducted in 2007.

    China’s strategic ballistic missile submarines have never conducted a deterrent patrol.

    Highest Patrol Rate Ever

    The 12 patrols conducted in 2008 constitute the highest patrol rater ever for the Chinese submarine fleet. They follow six patrols conducted in 2007, two in 2006, and zero in 2005. China has four times refrained from conducting submarine patrols since 1981, and the previous peaks were six patrols conducted in 2000 and 2007 (see Figure 1).
    [​IMG]
    While the increase is submarine patrols is important, it has to be seen in comparison with the size of the Chinese submarine fleet. With approximately 54 submarines, the patrol rate means that each submarine on average goes on patrol once every four and a half years. In reality, the patrols might have been carried out by only a small portion of the fleet, perhaps the most modern and capable types. A new class of nuclear-powered Shang-class (Type-093) attack submarines is replacing the aging Han-class (Type-091).

    Few of the details for assessing the implications of the increased patrol rate are known, nor is it known precisely what constitutes a patrol in order for U.S. naval intelligence to count it. A request for the definition has been denied. It is assumed that a patrol in this case involves an extended voyage far enough from the submarine’s base to be different from a brief training exercise.

    In comparison with other major navies, twelve patrols are not much. The patrol rate of the U.S. attack submarine fleet, which is focused on long-range patrols and probably operate regularly near the Chinese coast, is much higher with each submarine conducting at least one extended patrol per year. But the Chinese patrol rate is higher than that of the Russian navy, which in 2008 conducted only seven attack submarine patrols, the same as in 2007.

    Still no SSBN Patrols

    The declassified information also shows that China has yet to send one of its strategic submarines on patrol. The old Xia, China’s first SSBN, completed a multi-year overhaul in late-2007 but did not sail on patrol in 2008.
    [​IMG]
    The first of China’s new Jin-class (Type-094) SSBN was spotted in February 2008 at the relatively new base on Hainan Island, where a new submarine demagnetization facility has been constructed. But the submarine did not conduct a patrol the remainder of the year. A JL-2 missile was test launched Bohai Bay in May 2008, but it is yet unclear from what platform.

    Two or three more Jin-class subs are under construction at the Huludao (Bohai) Shipyard, and the Pentagon projects that up to five might be built. How these submarines will be operated as a “counter-attack” deterrent remains to be seen, but they will be starting from scratch.
     
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  18. blade

    blade Regular Member

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    AN/SQQ-89 ASW Combat System [ASWCS]
    The AN/SQQ-89 is the ASW Combat System for all surface combatants and will be the technological foundation for the ASW combat system of the DD-21. The ANISQQ-89 combat system suite provides Oliver Hazard Perry (FFG-7), Spruance (DD-963), Ticonderoga (CG-47), and Arleigb Burke (DDG-51) warships with an integrated undersea warfare detection, clas-sification, display, and targeting capability. The system combines and processes all active sonar information, and processes and displays all SH-60B Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System (LAMPS) Mk III sensor data.

    The AN/SQQ-89 USW Combat System is a fully integrated, real-time, distributed system that contains acoustic and environmental sensors, mission control, contact management, and weapon fire control subsystems. Legacy AN/SQQ-89 Combat System suites consist of the AN/SQS-53 hull sonar, AN/SQR-19 Towed-Array Sonar, AN/SQQ-28 LAMPS, AN/SQS-25 SIMAS, and ASW Control System (ASWCS) MK 116 systems. These legacy systems are linked via NTDS interfaces to form an integrated combat system. In order to engage and launch weapons against a subsurface threat, the AN/SQQ-89 has external interfaces to the MK 331 Torpedo Setting Panel (TSP), MK 41 Vertical Launch System (VLS), and the AEGIS Weapon System (AWS).

    The SQQ-89 tactical sonar suite is composed of a hull-mounted sonar (SQS-53B) and Tactical Towed Array Sonar (TACTAS), and is fully integrated with the ship's Light Airborne Multi-Purpose Systems (LAMPS MK 111) helicopter. The AN/SQQ-89 Integrated ASW Combat System suite is the most advanced ASW system in the world today, and makes the AEGIS cruiser the best equipped anti- submarine warfare platform in the world today. In light of various deficiencies identified in 1998, the Navy is reviewing and revising its AN/SQQ 89 upgrade program to develop and procure a fully integrated system in FY 03.

    AN/SQQ-89(V)1/2 Configurations (CG-47/DD-993/DD-963 and FFG-7 Class Ships).
    AN/SQS-53B Hull Mounted Sonar
    AN/SQR-19 Towed Array Sonar
    AN/SQQ-28 LAMPS MK III Sonobuoy Processing System
    AN/SQQ-89(V)2/4 Configurations (FFG-7/36 and DDG-51/DDG-993/DD-963 Class Ships).
    AN/SQS-53C Hull Mounted Sonar
    AN/SQR-19 Towed Array Sonar
    AN/SQQ-28 LAMPS MK III Sonobuoy Processing System
    ASWCS MK116 MOD 7 Anti-Submarine Warfare Control System
    AN/SQQ-89(V)6/9 Configurations (DDG-51/DDG-993/DD-963 and FFG-7/36 Class Ships).
    AN/SQS-53C Hull Mounted Sonar
    AN/SQR-19 Towed Array Sonar
    AN/SQQ-28 LAMPS MK III Sonobuoy Processing System
    ASWCS MK116 MOD 7 Anti-Submarine Warfare Control System.
    The AN/SQQ-89(V)14 Surface Ship ASW Combat System integrates COTS into surface ASW combat systems and is intended to generate significant cost savings over previous Military Standard Systems. However, the SQQ-89 project built a system entirely of COTS and TAC-3 components. A third of the way through the production run, before the units were installed, the computer and monitors were taken off the market and replaced by systems that used a different set of "commercially standard" connectors. The wiring harnesses had to be redesigned, and to maintain configuration management, the program office removed the old computers and backfitted the new ones at a cost of half a million dollars, excluding the expense of performing the modification. This entire cycle occurred in less than four years.

    The objective of the Surface ASW Combat Systems Integration Program is to incrementally modernize the existing AN/SQQ-89(V) system by providing contact fusion capabilities, improved data processing and classification performance, and develop an open system architecture. The open system architecture developed into the AN/SQQ-89(V) will enable further affordable performance growth to meet fleet requirements. Additionally, this program supports the efforts to develop adjunct processing capability to process transmissions bistatically using the AN/SQS-53C or Towed Active Receiver Subsystem (TARS) as the receiver. Adjunct processing capability will be further enhanced by the development of the Multi-Function Towed Array (MFTA). The MFTA system will be engineered to perform as the receive array for the mid-frequency active sonar, torpedo defense, and BroadBand Variable Depth Sonar (developed by PE 0603553N) which will increase bandwidth over existing AN/SQQ-89(V) sensors and improve Measures Of Performance (MOP) in detection, tracking and classification. These efforts will provide a fully integrated AN/SQQ-89(V) ASW Combat System, with improved performance in the shallow, littoral environment.

    Surface ASW Combat Systems Integration will fully support the integration of follow-on adjunct processing capabilities into the AN/SQQ-89(V) in these areas: 1) development of the MFTA to perform as the receive array for the mid-frequency active sonar, torpedo defense, and BroadBand Variable Depth Sonar, 2) implementation of the next incremental active classification improvement that will incorporate environmentally adaptive processing, and, 3) implementation of a follow-on mid-frequency bistatics capability to further improve detection, tracking, and classification of shallow water USW targets.

    The Towed Active Receive System (TARS) Program is appying COTS technology to provide the U.S. Surface Navy's AN/SQQ-89(V) Combat System with a new fiber optic Towed Array, a Mid-Frequency bistatic Processor and the SPS developed wideband Beamformer. The COTS Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) optical interface from Array to Beamformer to Processor is a commercial standard that easily achieves 19.2 Megabytes/second sustained input and output data rates. The Beamformer features Texas Instruments TMS320C40 DSP, PowerPC, and SPARCStation hardware and SPOX, VxWorks, and Solaris operating systems. The use of Internet Protocol (IP) between processor types provides a reliable heterogeneous processor and operating system environment. The multichannel parallel processing DSP nodes provide 300 Beam channels from 200 Elements. A highly structured portable application layer allows for rapid different development and new technology migration.

    The latest variant of the USW Combat System is the AN/SQQ-89(V)15. It is intended for forward-fit installation onboard DDG-51 (Flight IIA) Class Guided Missile Destroyers. The AN/SQQ-89(V)15 system is a significant step on the evolutionary path to a fully open, Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) system incorporating performance enhancements to meet the changing Undersea Warfare (USW) threats. The AN/SQQ-89(V)15 architecture builds upon previous AN/SQQ-89 architectures. However, for the AN/SQQ-89(V)15 system, architecture changes include the elimination of the majority of the MIL-SPEC equipment and the NTDS point-to-point interfaces. The AN/SQQ-89(V)15 architecture utilizes an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network. The AN/SQQ-89(V)15 is comprised of the following eight functional segments, grouped into three system tasks:

    USW Sensor and Processing Segments
    Acoustic Sensor Functional Segment (ASFS)
    LAMPS Sonobuoy Functional Segment (LSFS)
    Torpedo Recognition and Alertment Functional Segment (TRAFS)
    Contact Management and Fire Control Segment
    Undersea Warfare Control Functional Segment (UCFS)
    Support Segments
    On-Board Trainer Functional Segment (OBTFS)
    Sensor Performance Prediction Functional Segment (SPPFS)
    Workstation Functional Segment (WSFS)
    Common System Services Functional Segment (CSSFS).
    The AN/SQQ-89(V)15 system is designed to reduce system production costs versus legacy AN/SQQ-89 systems, while at the same time increasing system warfighting capability. The design goals of the AN/SQQ-89(V)15 system are as follows:

    Increase COTS Content Ð The AN/SQQ-89(V)15 system replaces the majority of the remaining AN/SQQ-89 standard militarized legacy components with COTS hardware. Specifically the Enhanced Modular Signal Processors (EMSPs), AN/UYK-43B and associated peripherals, Active Receiver Beamformer (ARBF), Waveform Generator and Transmit Beamformer (WGTB), Interface Signal Switch Unit (ISSU), and On-Board Trainer (OBT) units are replaced with COTS equivalents.
    Enhanced Warfighting Capability Ð The AN/SQQ-89(V)15 system provides selected enhanced warfighting capability particularly in a littoral environment. Echo Track/Classification (ETC) is provided for hull array processing, and AEGIS/USW display integration efforts are supported.
    Backfit Synergy Ð The AN/SQQ-89(V)15 system takes advantage of technologies which have been or are being developed for the AN/SQQ-89(V)14 system and the block upgrade programs.
    The AN/SQQ-89(V)15 open system architecture allows for easy incorporation of enhancements and new capabilities either by accessing the data available on the ATM LAN for use by new functions within the COTS equipment, or by adding new processors. Other features of the AN/SQQ-89(V)15 architecture include:

    Data Processing - A common set of data processing resources have been selected to support a minimal ILS supply line. These are consistent with the processors selected for the AN/UYQ-70 display systems. The HP744 provides high performance, a VME form factor, and supports multiple options for incorporating interfaces to the ATM LAN.
    Signal Processing - A common signal processing architecture is utilized for all new signal processing development activities such as OBT target generation, ETC signal processing, Hull Array receiver/beamformer, and sonobuoy signal processing. The signal processing architecture is a standard based cross bar switched design utilizing COTS solutions.
    Communications Middleware - The architecture uses a collection of middleware products to isolate the applications from the computer platform, ATM LAN, and operating system. The middleware allows the system to be partitioned along functional boundaries, and mapped to a hardware implementation based on resource availability and loading. The architecture utilizes CORBA as the foundation for the communications middleware. Enhancements are made to support new functions, and inclusion of new features, such as database managers and the ATM LAN.
    Resource Management - The resource management approach utilizes SNMP standards to implement system initialization, reconfiguration, and to control system PM/FL tests.
    The use of COTS equipment reduces the total cost to the program through reduction of the combined Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) and Contractor Furnished Equipment (CFE) costs. In addition, the open architecture allows easy incorporation of enhancements and new capabilities either by accessing the data available on the Local Area Network (LAN) for use by new functions within the COTS equipment, or by adding new processors.

    COTS insertion brings with it the advantage of easier technology refreshment to keep up with the rapidly changing world of commercial processing capability.

    The life cycle cost is reduced due to the reduction in the number of units, the number of unique assemblies within the units, the overall number of assemblies, and the cost per assembly.
    LINK:AN/SQQ-89 ASW Combat System [ASWCS]
     
  19. blade

    blade Regular Member

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    The induction of Akula - ii can never be as innocent an issue as being largely suggested by the indian defence experts. So much of money can never be invested just to train a few hundred sailors for comming 1 decate. There must be more to this story which may unfold in foreseeable future once the induction has been completed.In my views Akula - II will largely play a powerful deterrent role to chinese naval invasions.Being the quietest of all russian subs it will be the most potent submarine hunter in IN fleet. But as i mentioned in my previous posts that such nuke attack subs are highly expensive and dangerous bet against diesel electric submarines flotilla as enemy may even sacrifice a few vessels to destroy such an expensive toy. Even though aircraft careers are equally expensive items but has much more conventional punch compared to nuclear attack subs. Even the survivability of nuke subs are quiet low compared to large but floating Air craft careers which can take a lot of jolt and can still continue to float. So Akula - II will be a very expensive bet for IN in an ASW operations.
    While crawling under the sea surface an SSN hardly has any asymmetric advantage over its diesel electric peers as both of them will try to hit each other with similar type of weapons.When compared to AC's ...AC's can just sacrifice a few jets and find a safe passage. Just think about the number of option AC's have in any mission ...(excluding the might of its escort fleet) where as SSN's will have to rely mainly upon bigger and better Sonar systems owing to its far bigger size. Again this bigger size may turn out to be counter productive. The Use of SSN's in real time ASW operation is relatively a new subject & has not yet been validated in any of the previous battles.As far as ASW operations are concerned Akula - II will hardly have anything new to offer other than a bigger and powerful sonar & heavy torpedoes. So looking from this angle this investment dose look like a bit risky. Again we must
    analyze the situation looking from a broader point of view. May be then things look better.
     

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