Agni -MIRV

Discussion in 'Strategic Forces' started by LETHALFORCE, May 10, 2009.

  1. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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  2. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    http://www.aviationweek.aero/aw/gen...l&headline=India Stresses Missile Development

    India Stresses Missile Development

    India has become a major consumer, producer and developer of advanced technology. With indigenous defense programs coming to fruition, partnerships with key global contractors, a clever use of offsets (DTI October 2007, p. 22) and billions of dollars slated for procurement, India and its leading scientific agency, the Defense Research & Development Organization (DRDO), are becoming world-class players in the development and application of advanced technology.

    India has been upgrading its military capabilities in recent years, driven by its growing economy and challenges ranging from border conflicts with Pakistan and China to terrorism. One area in particular, aerospace, is returning major dividends to air, ground and naval forces as measured by advances in force projection, striking power and deterrence.

    The DRDO will spend $10 billion over the next seven years on strategic and tactical missiles, including the Astra air-to-air missile, BrahMos supersonic cruise missile (DTI December 2007, p. 17), Akash surface-to-air missile (SAM), Nag antitank guided missile and the Shourya surface-to-surface ballistic missile.

    Missile research got a boost when the Defense Research and Development Laboratory (DRDL)—part of DRDO—developed the Akash in the 1990s and added technology upgrades last year that increased its range. The Indian Air Force (IAF) placed an order with government-owned Bharat Electronics Ltd. (BEL) and its partners for two squadrons of Akash SAMs, which have a range of 30 km. (18 mi.). The delivery timeline is 36 months.

    “The order will be cleared by 2011,” says Prahlada, chief controller of the DRDO, who uses one name. “This is the first time [an indigenous] SAM for air defense has been ordered. This has also convinced the army to look at Akash.” (An interview with Prahlada appeared in DTI January/February 2006, p. 40.)
    Shourya surface-to-surface missile is designed to provide India with a second-strike capability.Credit: AP/WIDE WORLD FILE PHOTO

    A long-range SAM (70 km.) is in the pipeline through a joint development program with Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) that started last year. The program involves DRDO labs in Pune, Bangalore and Hyderabad. IAI will contribute most of the technology.

    Having successfully test-fired the Agni-3 surface-to-surface missile (range 3,000 km.), DRDO is looking at the Agni-5, which has derivative technology for larger payloads and longer range. The Agni-5 will be a solid-fuel ballistic missile with multiple warheads. Two of its three stages will be made of composites. Its range will be over 5,000 km. The first flight-test version is expected by 2010.

    The missile is being developed for deterrence, not as an offensive weapon, says V.K. Saraswat, who oversees research and development on missiles and strategic systems at DRDO. “The Agni-3 and Agni-5 will have countermeasures, reentry maneuver capabilities and stealth.”

    Sixty percent of Agni-5 subsystems will be similar to those in the Agni-3. The rest of the missile will have advanced technologies such as a locally developed ring-laser gyroscope and accelerometer for navigation and guidance.

    The recent test-firing of the new Shourya ballistic missile was another success for DRDO. Shourya, developed for use by the army, is designed to provide a credible second-strike capability. Its range is reportedly 600 km. DRDO has not said if it can carry nuclear warheads, but the missile reportedly has high maneuverability and an anti-missile intercept capability.
     
  3. Daredevil

    Daredevil On Vacation! Administrator

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  4. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    Agni mirv designs

    [​IMG]

    AGNI MIRV possible future designs
     
  5. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/2185477/posts

    ICBM test to launch India into Big Five

    Times of India ^ | 2/14/2009 | Rajat Pandit

    Posted on Saturday, February 14, 2009 3:28:25 AM by bruinbirdman

    BANGALORE: India will test its most ambitious strategic missile next year, in what will be its first step towards having potent ICBM (intercontinental ballistic missile) capabilities, largely the preserve of the Big-5 countries till now.

    With the design work on the 5,000-km-range Agni-V virtually over now, DRDO chief M Natarajan on Friday said the missile would certainly be tested before December 2010. "I am very confident we will be able to do it,'' he said, speaking on the sidelines of the Aero India-2009 show here.

    The work on the nuclear-capable Agni-V basically revolves around incorporating a third composite stage in the two-stage Agni-III, along with some advanced technologies like ring laser gyroscope and accelerator for navigation and guidance.

    Agni-III, with a strike range of 3,500-km to accord the capability to strike targets deep inside China, on its part, has been successfully tested only two times till now.

    Defence scientists want the solid-fuelled Agni-V, for which the government has sanctioned around Rs 2,500 crore, to be a canister-launch missile system to ensure it has the requisite operational flexibility to be fired from any part of the country.

    Agni-V will be slightly short of true ICBMs, which have ranges in excess of 5,500 km. "We have the capability to go in for much higher range but it is for the government to give a go-ahead. At present, we have a green signal for only Agni-V,'' said a scientist.

    As reported recently by TOI, while China is several leagues ahead, India continues to lag behind even Pakistan in the missile race. At present, only the 150-to-350 km short range Prithvi missile can be said to be "fully operational'' in the armed forces. The 700-km Agni-I and 2,000-km Agni-II are still in the process of being inducted into the forces.

    India, of course, hopes to gate-crash into the very exclusive club of countries like US, Russia and China, which have both ICBM as well as SLBM (submarine-launched ballistic missile) capabilities, by 2010-2011.

    DRDO is working on the K-15 SLBM, having tested it from submersible pontoon launchers till now, with the aim to integrate it on the indigenous nuclear submarines being built under the secretive ATV (advanced technology vessel) project.

    Though not in the range of the over 5,000-km SLBMs in the arsenal of US, Russia and China, the 750-km range K-15 will accord India with the desperately-needed third leg of the "nuclear weapon triad''. India currently depends on the Agni missiles as well as fighters like Mirage-2000s as its platforms to deliver nuclear weapons.

    DRDO, of course, is also going to shortly conduct the third test of the fledgling two-tier BMD (ballistic missile defence) system, capable of tracking and destroying incoming hostile missiles both inside (endo) and outside (exo) the earth's atmosphere.

    The BMD system was tested for the first time in November 2006 when an "exo-atmospheric'' hypersonic interceptor missile was used to destroy an "enemy'' Prithvi missile at an altitude of 40-50 km.

    The second time, in December 2007, an "endo-atmospheric interceptor'' took on an enemy missile at an altitude of 15-km. "After the third test in a month or so, we will test the endo and exo together in an integrated mode later this year,'' said a scientist.
     
  6. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    http://www.deccanchronicle.com/big-story/isro’s-feat-civil-show-missile-muscle-278

    Isro’s feat a civil show of missile muscle

    ON SEPTEMBER 23, Isro once again demonstrated the expertise it has acquired over several satellite launches — the ability to put multiple payloads into precise orbits in a single rocket mission. Each time it does so, questions are asked about whether India could use this capability on its military missiles.
    It’s an important question, especially for India’s nuclear enemies and the non-proliferation lobbies in the US. What they worry about is a missile that can carry and lob multiple warheads at an enemy — the multiple independently-targetable vehicle, or MIRV-ed, missile. The US, Russia, Britain and France possess such missiles, each of which can carry between 3-10 nuclear warheads and shoot each at a different target. MIRV-ed missiles are the ultimate vehicles for nuclear weapons delivery because they are impossible to defend against.
    But what has that got to do with Isro and its civilian satellite launches? Space technology is inherently dual use: the technologies and capabilities that one develops for rocket launch can help build missiles; spacecraft can be used for both military and civilian purposes. By design or by default, therefore, many of the technologies demonstrated by Isro in launching multiple satellites in one shot validate Indian capabilities to design MIRV-ed missiles. In the 1960s, technologies that were developed for the US space programme served as forerunners to the MIRV-ed missiles that came later. There are essentially four critical technologies that go into making a MIRV-ed missile, and in successive launches at least since 2007, Isro has demonstrated pretty much all of them (see box).
    The question, however, is whether Isro is palming off these technologies to the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) which develops the country’s missiles. The answer is no, for several reasons. For one, Isro maintains a strict firewall between itself and India’s military R&D establishment, for fear of attracting US sanctions and technology denial.
    Second, the DRDO itself has its own programmes to develop MIRV-ed missiles, many of them initiated before Isro demonstrated its technologies. Indeed, it is said the missile makers have made enough headway to MIRV a missile that’s currently under development — the 3,000+ km Agni-III missile may be designed to carry three nuclear warheads. India’s eventual ICBM will carry at least eight warheads, according to DRDO sources.
    Third, MIRV-ed missiles are so much more demanding in terms of accuracy, response times and manouvreability of the missile, the warhead dispensing systems and the warheads themselves that satellite launch technology cannot be taken and readily used on missiles.
    “The basic technologies for dispensing, navigation, etc., are the same, and they are available with India in both its space programme and in DRDO. Each, however, requires its own customisations. Satellites go into space orbit, our MIRV warheads come back into the atmosphere, etc., and so there are different demands on each,” a top DRDO missile scientist said, although he would neither confirm nor deny details about Agni-III.
    Still, the value of Isro’s capability demonstrations should not be underestimated. As one top DRDO scientist said while asking not to be quoted, each time Isro or DRDO show a capability that the other is also interested in, it tells the scientists and engineers in the other camp that even they can achieve it within the constraints imposed upon India, meaning despite the technology denial regimes imposed on India.
    When the French wanted to MIRV their missiles, they struggled unsuccessfully for several years. What got them going was an “innovative” method of technology transfer — actually, proliferation — by the Americans. In exchange for the French military agreeing to coordinate its plans for a military response to the erstwhile Soviet Union with those of the Nato, the Americans agreed to help the French missile scientists MIRV their missiles through a “negative feedback” mechanism — French scientists would put before the Americans various options they were considering to solve the problems they were facing in MIRV-ing, the Americans would tell them which ones wouldn’t work. Over a number of iterations, the French were left with a distilled set of solutions that worked. France got its MIRV-ed missiles.
     
  7. bengalraider

    bengalraider DFI Technocrat Stars and Ambassadors

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    The thing i am waiting for is the road mobility; Agni 5 may have a 5000km range and Mirv's but what shall truly up the ante in the subcontinent shall be the road mobility of the missile
     
  8. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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  9. bengalraider

    bengalraider DFI Technocrat Stars and Ambassadors

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  10. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    http://mightyindiapower.blogspot.com/2009/10/india-mutliple-warhead-system.html

    India's mutliple-warhead system

    This one is on the lines of free-market commercials: Ask for one and get at least four free! The difference is that it is not a shirt or a pair of jeans. It's a single rocket capable of delivering multiple warheads - even non-conventional nuclear systems - at different targets.

    The country is on the verge of getting one as the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is validating technologies that will help India deploy multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRV) on its missiles.

    Currently, the country has missiles that can deliver only one warhead at a time. The defence research establishment has confirmed that it has made significant progress over the past few years in developing an indigenous technology for the single-rocket-multiplewarhead system. In another three-four years, this ultimate war machine will be ready.

    The DRDO says the platform for re-entry vehicles would be different from the indigenously developed Agni series of missiles. Since it would be precision device, sources said the guiding system would require a high degree of accuracy to offset even a small circular error of probability or a negligible deviation from the intended target.

    Another reason for this overbearing inclination for detail and accuracy is that the destructive potential of smaller warheads on multiple vehicles is low. Hence, these warheads will have to hit the intended targets at the accurate point and optimise the damage. That apart, the scientists will have to miniaturise the size of the warheads and develop a superior guidance system.

    The MIRV system is not a new concept. Senior analyst G. Balachandran of the Institute of Defence Studies and Analyses said the technology was conceived in the early 1960s by the US to enhance the limited capacity of its nuclear submarines carrying ballistic missiles.

    It triggered a major escalation of the arms race between the US and Russia (then USSR) in the Cold War period. The Soviets retaliated by developing a similar technology but placing the warheads on larger rockets. This enabled them to put more warheads into one missile.

    Eventually, the two countries signed several strategic arms limitation agreements, reducing the number and weight of the warheads.

    The Indian MIRV could also kick up a storm on whether it is against the principle of "nuclear restraint" that guides the country's nuclear doctrine.

    Senior journalist Praful Bidwai, also an anti- nuclear activist, said the move would "escalate a disastrous arms race with China". In 2002, China successfully tested its first MIRV - to offset the advantage the US enjoyed with its American National Missile Defence System.

    Bidwai said China would surely view the Indian development as threat. "It also strikes at the root of the concept of minimum, credible deterrence as multiple warheads on a missile would surely hike the Indian arsenal manifolds." But Balachandran and Air Commodore (retired) Jasjit Singh, who is now the director of the Centre for Air Power Studies, begged to differ.

    "Escalation is a condition that the other party denotes on the basis of its perception. If a single missile delivers multiple warheads, it actually reduces the number of launch vehicles," Singh explained.

    Prominent strategic analyst K. Subrahmanyam said the multiple warheads would increase the survival chances of the weapons in case of a nuclear attack.
     
  11. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    http://news.in.msn.com/national/article.aspx?page=0&cp-documentid=3288644&=&

    Missile breakthrough: Agni-V poised for a global reach


    Hyderabad: The Advanced Systems Laboratory (ASL) in Hyderabad, which develops India’s strategic (long-range, nuclear-tipped) missiles, has dramatically increased the options for its forthcoming Agni-5 missile by making it highly road-mobile, or easily transportable by road.

    In many other respects, the Agni-5, which is scheduled to make its first flight in early-2011, carries forward the Agni-3 pedigree. With composites used extensively to reduce weight, and a third stage added on (the Agni-3 was a two-stage missile), the Agni-5 can fly 1,500 km further than the 3,500-km Agni-3.

    "The Agni-5 is specially tailored for road-mobility," explains Avinash Chander, Director, ASL. "With the canister having been successfully developed, all India's future land-based strategic missiles will be canisterised as well".

    Made of maraging steel, a canister must provide a hermitically sealed atmosphere that preserves the missile for years. During firing, the canister must absorb enormous stresses when a thrust of 300to 400 tonnes is generated to eject the 50-tonne missile.

    Canister technology was first developed in India for the Brahmos cruise missile. But it was the K-15 underwater-launched missile, developed here in Hyderabad for India's nuclear-powered submarine, INS Arihant, which fully overcame the technological hurdles in canisterising ballistic missiles.

    Another major technological breakthrough that will beef up the Agni-5 is ASL's success in developing and testing MIRVs (multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles). An MIRV, atop an Agni-5 missile, comprises three to 10 separate nuclear warheads. Each warhead can be assigned to a separate target, separated by hundreds of kilometres; alternatively, two or more warheads can be assigned to one target.

    "We have made major progress on the MIRVs in the last two years," is all that Avinash Chander is willing to say on the subject.

    Nevertheless, extensive testing still lies ahead for this highly complex technology. MIRVs will be deployed on the Agni-5 only after another 4-5 years.

    While MIRV technology is similar to launching multiple satellites through a space rocket, a missile requires far greater accuracy. A satellite would be considered in correct orbit even it is a kilometre higher or lower than planned.

    But each warhead in an MIRV must impact within 40 metres of its target. With such high accuracies, even small nuclear warheads are sufficient for the job.

    Strategic planners consider MIRVs essential, given India's declared "no first use" nuclear policy. Even after an enemy has hit India with a full-fledged nuclear strike, destroying or incapacitating much of the strategic arsenal, a handful of surviving Indian missiles must be capable of retaliating with massive and unacceptable damage. Multiple warheads on a handful of Agni-5 missiles would constitute such a capability.

    MIRVs also enable a single missile to overwhelm the enemy's missile defences. Tracking and shooting down multiple warheads are far more difficult than intercepting a single warhead.

    Providing each warhead with the capability to manoeuvre, and dodge enemy interceptor missiles, increases survivability further. The MIRV warheads are also being given electronic packages for jamming enemy radars
    .
     
  12. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    http://knol.google.com/k/agni-v-irbm#MIRV_Warheads

    Agni-V IRBM


    The canisterized intermediate range nuclear capable Agni-V missile is also referred to as Agni-III+
    The Indian Government sanctioned Rs2,500 crore to develop the Agni V missile, with a range of 5,000km in 2008. The missile is expected to be ready for testing in the 2010-11 time frame.
    Contents

    * At a Glance
    * Introduction
    * Navigation System
    * Operational Status
    * Use of Composites
    * MIRV Warheads
    * Canister Launch

    At a Glance

    Range 5,000 km
    Stages Three
    Warhead Weight 1.5 ton
    Warhead Type Single
    MIRV warheads under development.
    Total Weight 51 ton
    Dimensions 22m long, 2m diameter
    Status Design completed. First Test - Early 2011

    Introduction
    The Indian Government sanctioned Rs2,500 crore to develop the Agni V missile, with a range of 5,000km in 2008. (The Agni V is also referred to as Agni III+).

    The missile is being developed by adding an all composite third state to the two-stage, 3, 500km Agni III missile.

    The missile will have 60% commonality of components with Agni III, including its ring laser gyroscope and accelerometer.

    The gyroscope was developed by Research Centre Imarat (RCI), sister laboratory of ASL, and is part of DRDO's missile complex in Hyderabad.

    The ring laser is also fitted on the Shourya tactical missile.

    Navigation System

    Agni-V uses the same navigation system as the one fitted on Agni-III.

    It uses a ring laser gyroscope that was developed by Research Centre Imarat (RCI), sister laboratory of ASL, a part of DRDO's missile complex in Hyderabad.

    The ring laser is also fitted on the Shourya tactical missile.

    Operational Status

    The design of the missile has been completed. Subsystem testing and material cutting was in progress as on February 10, 2010.

    The missile is expected to be ready for testing in the 2010-11 time frame.

    Speaking to the press on February 10, scientific advisor to defence minister V.K. Saraswat said:

    "Agni-V has crossed material cutting stage and subsystem testing is going on. Agni-V is derivative of Agni-III. Practically it is the same missile but it is five metres longer and one tonne heavier. Its navigation system is same.

    "Sixty percent missile is available and we are just adding another stage. It will be a three-stage missile and it is the first time we will be building a three-stage missile."

    Use of Composites

    Besides the all composite third stage, the second stage of the missile will also use composites to save weight and allow for the addition of a third stage.

    Talking to The Hindu in November, Avinash Chander, director of the Agni program and of the Advanced Systems Laboratory (ASL) said the Agni V design has been completed and the first development flight test will be conducted in 2010.

    MIRV Warheads

    VK Saraswat, DRDO's Chief Controller of Missiles and Strategic Systems, told Business Standard in May 2008 that DRDO is working on a 5,000kme range Agni-5 missile, with multiple warheads (MIRVs) that can maneuver and send out decoys to confuse enemy anti-missile defenses.

    In October 2008, ASL Director Avinash Chander told Business Standard:

    “We have made major progress on the MIRVs in the last two years.”

    MIRV technology is very similar to the multiple satellite launch technology that ISRO has mastered and repeatedly demonstrated using its PSLV launcher. However, warhead separation requires a higher degree of accuracy than satellite separation. MIRV is effective only when accuracy of the individual warheads is high, allowing relatively small warheads to be targeted at widely dispersed targets.

    MIRVed missiles deployed on nuclear submarines represent a potent second strike capability in support of a no first use nuclear doctrine like the one embraced by India.

    Canister Launch

    The mobile missile will be the first Indian strategic missile capable of canister launch, allowing it to be deployed and launched from any part of the country. A canister launch capability is also compatible with reports that the missile will ultimately equip India's newly launched nuclear powered submarine - INS Arihant.

    Placing the missile in a hermetically sealed canister facilitates long term storage. The missile canister is made of maraging steel allowing it to withstand the 300 to 400 t shock generated when the 50-ton missile.is ejected out.

    All future missiles will be canister based ASL Director Avinash Chander told Business Standard in October 2009,

    “The Agni-5 is specially tailored for road-mobility,” explains Avinash Chander, Director, ASL. “With the canister having been successfully developed, all India’s future land-based strategic missiles will be canisterised as well”.

    Canister technology was initially developed for the naval variant of Brahmos missile. The technology was completely mastered during the development of the K-15 missiles that will initially equip INS Arihant.

    Ref:
    Road mobility gives Agni-5 global reach (Business Standard)
    Agni-V design completed; to be test-fired in 2010 (The Hindu)
    Govt allots Rs2,500 cr for Agni-V (DNA India)
     
    Last edited: Apr 21, 2010
  13. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    http://news.oneindia.in/2010/05/17/indiato-fire-over-5000-km-range-agni-v-in2011.html

    India to fire over 5000 km range Agni V in 2011

    New Delhi, May 17 (ANI): After the successful launch of the Agni II missile, India is all set to test fire its first Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile, Agni-V, in Mach-April 2011.

    Buzz up!
    Agni V is being designed by adding a third composite stage to the two-stage 3,500-km Agni-III, having a range of over 5000 km to carry multiple warheads and will have countermeasures against anti-ballistic missile systems.


    It is a three-stage solid fuelled missile with composite motor casing in the third stage. Two stages of this missile will be made of composite material. The Agni V will be the first canisterised, road-mobile missile in India.

    Buoyed by the success of the Agni II missile, Dr W Selvamurthy, DRDO's Chief Controller Research and Development, said: "We are now working on Agni V, which has a range capacity of more than 5,000 kilometres. It is a strategic missile being developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation."

    "It will be ready by next year. We hope during March-April next year. It will be an Inter Continental Ballistic Missile."

    The Strategic Force Command on Monday successfully test fired Agni II, an Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM) with a range of 2000 km, from Wheeler Island off the coast of Orissa at 9:18 a.m., meeting all mission objectives.

    "Agni II is a strategic missile, which has a range capability of 2,000 km. It can carry a nuclear warhead," said Dr Selvamurthy.

    "We have successfully test fired this today. The Strategic Force Command has carried this out. They have done the whole operation themselves and our scientists have been observing the whole operation.

    "It has gone very well. All the mission objectives have been successfully met. This has been inducted in the Armed Forces. It was successfully test fired from the Wheeler Island," he added.

    The Agni missile is a family of medium to inter-continental range ballistic missiles developed by India. It comprises of Agni I, Agni II, Agni III and Agni V. By Praful Kumar Singh (ANI)
     
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  14. SHASH2K2

    SHASH2K2 New Member

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  15. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    http://www.espionageinfo.com/An-Ba/Ballistic-Missiles.html

    Ballistic Missiles

    In 1999, Pakistan test fired this Ghauri II ballistic missile, which is capable of carrying a nuclear warhead deep inside the territory of its neighbor and rival, India.sophisticated guidance computers of later ballistic missiles, was inaccurate. Only 50% of V-2s aimed at a given point would, on average, land within 11 mi (17 km) of that point. The V-2 was therefore not aimed at military installations but, like its predecessor the V-1 (the first cruise missile, also developed by Nazi Germany), at the city of London. Some 518 V-2s struck London during the final years of World War II, killing over 20,000 people and making the V-2 the deadliest ballistic missile in history—so far. (The "V" in V-1 and V-2 stands for Vergeltungswaffe , German for "retaliation weapon," reflecting the fact that the V-2's primary purpose was not victory but vengeance.)

    The United States and Soviet Union were far behind Germany in the design of large rockets during World War II, but both captured V-2 technicians and information at the end of the war and used them to accelerate their own missile programs. The U.S. began by experimenting with captured V-2s, and during the late 1940s built several new rockets of its own based on the V-2. During the 1950s both the Soviet Union and the United States turned their attention to the development of ballistic-missile boosters that could reach the other country's heartland from anywhere in the world. The Soviet Union flight-tested the world's first ICBM, the R-7, in August, 1957. Two months later the R-7 was used to launch the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik I, and four years later launched the world's first orbital manned space flight. The U.S. was not far behind, and by 1959 had deployed its own ICBMs, the liquid-fueled Atlas and Titan missiles. The Americans also used their ICBMs for early space-flight efforts; the first manned U.S. space flights (Mercury and Gemini programs) used the Redstone, Atlas, and Titan II missile boosters.

    Throughout the Cold War, the U.S. and Soviet Union competed in the development of numerous types of ballistic missiles and built thousands of missiles in all range categories. At the peak of their buildup, which occurred in the late 1980s, the two superpowers together possessed approximately 70,000 nuclear weapons, many mounted on ballistic missiles. After the Cold War ended with the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, arms-control agreements were made between Russia and the U.S. that reduced their combined nuclear arsenal to approximately 30,500 warheads. The number of ballistic missiles in all range categories was also drastically reduced.

    Nevertheless, the U.S. and Russia still maintain hundreds of nuclear-armed long-range ballistic missiles (i.e., ICBMs and SLBMs) in a state of launch readiness, mostly in submarines and in concrete-lined holes in the ground (silos). Specifically, the U.S. as of 2003 has approximately 550 ICBMs carrying 2,325 warheads and 432 SLBMs carrying 3,616 warheads, while Russia (the nuclear inheritorstate of the now-dissolved Soviet Union) has approximately 756 ICBMs carrying 3800 warheads and 348 SLBMs carrying 2272 warheads. (The warhead numbers are greater than the missile numbers because of MIRVing.) The U.S. and Russia also maintain hundreds of nuclear warheads mounted on various BSRMBs, SRBMs, MRBMs, and IRBMs, and hundreds of nuclear weapons configured for delivery by aircraft rather than by ballistic missile.
    Categories of Ballistic Missiles

    With the exception of submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs), ballistic missiles are categorized according to range. Five commonly accepted categories of ballistic missile, with their associated ranges, are as follows: (1) battlefield short range ballistic missiles (BSRMBs: <93 mi [150 km]); (2) short range ballistic missiles (SRBMs: 93–497 mi [150–800 km]), (3) medium range ballistic missiles (MRBMs: 497–1490 mi [800–2400 km]), (4) intermediate range ballistic missiles (IRBMs: 1490–3416 mi [2400–5500 km]), and (5) intercontinental range ballistic missiles (ICBMs:>3416 mi [> 5500 km]).

    Alternatively, the U.S. Department of Defense defines ballistic missiles with ranges less than 683 mi (1100 km) as SRBMs, those with ranges between 683 and 1708 mi (1100–2750 km) as MRBMs, those with ranges between 1708 and 3416 mi (1100–5500 km) as IRBMs.

    Ballistic missiles can be launched from submarines, silos (i.e., vertical underground tubes), ships, or trailers. All ballistic missiles launched from submarines, regardless of range, are categorized as SLBMs; modern SLBMs have ranges comparable to those of ICBMs. The purpose of mounting ballistic missiles on submarines is to make them secure from attack. Modern missile submarines, such as those in the U.S. Trident class, are difficult to locate and can launch their missiles without surfacing.
    Ballistic Missile Function

    The flight of a ballistic missile can be divided into three phases: boost phase, cruise phase, and descent (terminal) phase. Boost phase begins with the ignition of the missile's booster rocket. The booster lofts the missile at a steep angle, imparting a high speed to the payload before burning out. The payload and booster then separate, beginning the cruise phase. The spent booster falls back to Earth while the payload, starting to lose speed, continues to gain altitude. If the missile is sufficiently long-range, its payload rises above the Earth's atmosphere during cruise phase, where it jettisons its aerodynamic protective shroud and arcs under the influence of gravity. The payload may be a single cone-shaped warhead or a flat "bus" with several warheads attached to it like upside-down icecream cones arranged circularly on a plate.

    Individual warheads are not propelled downward toward their targets on the ground, but follow ballistic paths determined by gravity and aerodynamics, gaining speed as they lose altitude. Modern reentry vehicles usually feature small external fins or other steering devices that enable them to control their course, within limits, as they fall through the atmosphere; though such maneuverable reentry vehicles (MARVs) are not, strictly speaking, ballistic objects, missiles delivering them are still termed "ballistic" missiles for convenience. Maneuverability increases accuracy; a modern MARV delivered by ICBM or SLBM can land within a few hundred feet of its target after a journey of thousands of miles. Warheads may explode in the air high above their targets, on the surface, or under the surface after striking into the ground.

    Boosters. The booster rockets of early ballistic missiles were powered by liquid fuels. A liquid-fuel rocket carries fuel (hydrazine, liquid hydrogen, or other) and liquid oxygen in tanks. Pressurized streams of fuel and oxygen are mixed and ignited at the top of a bell-shaped chamber: hot, expanding gases rush out of the open end of the bell, imparting momentum to the rocket in the opposite direction. Liquid fuels are unwieldy, as they must be maintained at low temperatures and may leak fuel or oxygen from tanks, pipes, valves, or pumps. Early U.S. ICBMs such as the Atlas and Titan I required several hours of above-ground preparation, including fueling, before they could be launched.

    Since the late 1950s, ballistic-missile design has concentrated on solid-fuel boosters, which require less maintenance and launch preparation time and are more reliable because they contain fewer moving parts. Solid-fuel rockets contain long, hollow-core casts of a fuel mixture that, once ignited, burn from the inside out in an orderly way, forcing gases out the rear of the rocket. Starting in the early 1960s, liquid-fuel ballistic missiles were gradually phased out of the U.S. and Russian arsenals in favor of solid-fuel missiles. The first U.S. solid-fuel ICBM was the Minuteman I missile (so-called because of its near-instant response time), which was deployed to underground silos in the Midwest starting in 1962. Today, the ballistic-missile fleet of the United States consists almost entirely of solid-fuel rocket boosters. The Minuteman III, for example, like the Minuteman I and II it replaces, has a three-stage solid-fuel booster and a range of over 7000 miles. ( Stages are independent rockets that are stacked to form a single, combined rocket. The stages are burned from the bottom up; each is dropped as it is used up, and the stage above it is ignited. The advantage of staging is that the booster lightens more rapidly as it gains speed and altitude. There are single-stage, two-stage, and three-stage ballistic missiles; the greater the number of stages, the longer the range of the missile.)

    Payloads, warheads, and MIRVs. As mentioned above, the payload of a ballistic missile may be either a single warhead or a bus bearing several warheads which can each be sent to a different target in the same general area (e.g., the eastern United States). Such a payload is termed a multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle (MIRV) system, and missiles bearing multiple independently targetable warheads are said to be MIRVed. The first MIRVed missiles were deployed the U.S. in 1970; only long-range ballistic missiles (ICBMs and SLBMs) are MIRVed. After a MIRV bus detaches from the burnt-out upper stage of its booster, it arcs through space in its cruise phase. It may possess a low-power propulsion system that enables it to impart slightly different velocities to each of its warheads, which it releases at different times. (Slight differences between individual warhead trajectories in space can translate to relatively large differences between trajectories later on, when the individual warheads are approaching their targets.) The U.S. Minuteman III ICBM is a modern MIRVed missile carrying up to three warheads; other MIRVed missiles, such as the MX, have been capable of carrying up to 10 warheads.

    Regional or approximate targeting for each MIRVed warhead is achieved by bus maneuvering and release timing during cruise phase. During descent phase, the warhead may steer itself to its precise target by means of inertial guidance, radar, or a combination of the two. Inertial guidance is based on the principle that every change in an object's velocity can be sensed by that object as an acceleration. By knowing its exact prelaunch location and state of motion (e.g., by consulting the Global Positioning System) and by precisely measuring all accelerations during and after launch, an inertial guidance system can calculate its location at all times without needing to make further observations of the outside world. Ballistic-missile payloads rely primarily on inertial guidance to strike their targets; MARVs may refine their final course by consulting the Global Positioning System (as is done, for example, by the Chinese CSS-6 SRBM) or by using radar to guide themselves during final approach (as was done, for example, by the Pershing II IRBM deployed by the U.S. in Europe during the 1980s).

    The nuclear warheads mounted on modern long-range ballistic missiles are usually thermonuclear warheads having yields in the range of several hundred kilotons to several megatons. (One kiloton equals the explosive power of one thousand tons of the chemical explosive TNT; one megaton is equivalent to a million tons of TNT.) Those nations that do not possess nuclear weapons mount conventional-explosive warheads on their ballistic missiles.

    Proliferation. Ballistic missiles offer the ability to inflict sudden damage on a distant foe. This is the central military motive behind their invention by the U.S. and Soviet Union and behind their more recent development or purchase by many states. The U.S. Department of State estimates that at least 27 nations now possess, or are in the process of developing, ballistic missiles. However, China, France, and the United Kingdom are the only countries beside the U.S. and Russia to possess long-range ballistic missiles (i.e., ICBMs and SLBMs): China, 20 ICBMs with 20 warheads; France, 64 SLBMs with 384 warheads; and the UK, 48 SLBMs with 185 warheads.

    Of the many countries that possess some type of ballistic missile, only China, France, India, Israel, Pakistan, Russia, the United Kingdom, the United States, and (as of early 2003) possibly North Korea have nuclear weapons to mount on them. India and Pakistan, which in the 1990s and early 2000s fought several border wars in the last few decades, are engaged in a competitive ballistic-missile development race in which India is distinctly ahead. India has produced an SRBM, the Prithvi (range 155 mi [250 km]), and an IRBM, the Agni (range 1550 mi [2,500 km]); it also has built several space-launch rockets capable of being used as ICBMs. Pakistan manufactures several BSRMBs and SRBMs of its own (the Hatf I, II, and III missiles, all with ranges of 373 mi [600 km] or less) and has purchased M-11 SRBMs from China. Israel's Jericho 2B IRBM (range 930 mi [1,500 km]) can reach southern Russia and much of the Middle East; North Korea's Taep'o Dong 2 IRBM (range 2,480–3,720 mi [4,000–6,000 km]) can reach much of mainland Asia, Japan, the Pacific, and probably Scandinavia. Some states (e.g., Japan, Sweden) are technically capable of building both ballistic missiles and nuclear weapons but have refrained from doing so; however, many more states are likely to develop ballistic missiles in the near future.

    Read more: http://www.espionageinfo.com/An-Ba/Ballistic-Missiles.html#ixzz0ryqQiige
     
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  16. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    CROSS POSTED

    Eyeing China, India to enter ICBM club in 3 months - The Times of India

    Eyeing China, India to enter ICBM club in 3 months - The Times of India


    NEW DELHI: The countdown has begun. Within three months, India will gatecrash the super-exclusive ICBM (inter-continental ballistic missile) club, largely the preserve of countries like the US, Russia and China that brandish long-range strategic missiles with strike ranges well beyond 5,500 km.

    However, it will become a full-fledged member of the club only when its most ambitious nuclear-capable Agni-V ballistic missile, which will be able to target even northern China if required, becomes fully operational in 2014.

    Gung-ho a day after the successful test of the new-generation 3,500-km Agni-IV missile, senior defence scientists on Wednesday declared that Agni-V, with a strike range of over 5,000-km, would be test-fired within the December-February time-frame.

    "The three-stage Agni-V is undergoing integration at the moment...it's on schedule," DRDO chief V K Saraswat said, adding that both Agni-IV and V were comparable to the best missiles in their class, including Chinese ones, as far as the technology was concerned. Agni programme director Avinash Chander said his team was "confident" of offering the 17.5-metre-tall Agni-V for induction to the armed forces by 2014. The much-lighter two-stage Agni-IV will be operational by 2013 after two to four more "repeatable" tests.

    "Our aim is to take just two to three years from the first test to the induction phase," he said.

    Once deployed, the 20-tonne Agni-IV and 50-tonne Agni-V will add the much-needed muscle to India's nuclear deterrence posture against China, which has a huge nuclear and missile arsenal like the 11,200-km Dong Feng-31A ICBM which is capable of hitting any Indian city. With higher accuracy, fast-reaction capability and road mobility, unlike the earlier largely rail-mobile Agni missiles, Agni-IV and V will give India the required operational flexibility against China since they will be capable of being stored and swiftly transported. If launched from the north-east, for instance, they will be able to hit high-value targets deep inside China.

    India, however, is not in an arms race or "numbers game" like the US-Soviet rivalry of the Cold War era. "We are not looking at how many missiles China or Pakistan has. With a 'no first-use' nuclear weapons policy, we only want a sufficient number of missiles to defend the country in the event of a crisis. Ours is a defensive-mode strategy, even if others have offensive postures," Saraswat said. The DRDO chief added that "indigenous content" in India's strategic missiles had gone up to such a level, with ring-laser gyros, composite rocket motors, micro-navigation systems and their ilk, that "no technology control regime" could derail them any longer.

    Then why not go for missiles that can fly around 10,000 km? DRDO claims that it has the capability to develop such missiles but the government does not want alarm bells to clang around the globe. India, after all, is interested only in "credible minimum deterrence" against the threats it faces. Saraswat said the current focus was on fine-tuning the Agni missiles to defeat anti-ballistic missile systems of potential adversaries. Towards this end, added Chander, the radar and other "signatures" of Agni-IV have been significantly reduced to make them "much more immune to counter-measures".

    What will make the Agni missiles even more deadly is the development of MIRV (multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles) warheads on which the DRDO is working. An MIRV payload on a missile carries several nuclear warheads, which can be programmed to hit different targets. A flurry of such missiles can completely overwhelm BMD ( ballistic missile defence) systems.
     
  17. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - Main News

    5,000-km range missile enough for India: Kalam

    Rajpura/Fatehgarh Sahib, November 17
    A nuclear-warhead capable inter-continental ballistic missile (ICBM) that has a range of 5,000 km was enough to watch India’s strategic interest, said former President Dr APJ Kalam while interacting with students of Chitkara University here today.

    “An ICBM with 5,000-km range was enough as the potential enemies were well within this range,” said Dr Kalam, replying in context of India’s announcement to test Agni-V, an ICBM that can travel more than 5,000 km. On being asked about the need to develop ICBMs with longer range, the Missile Man of India, without referring to rapidly emerging neighbour China, said the threat was not from trans-Atlantic Ocean.

    On being asked about the education system in the country, he said though the Indian students were in big demand abroad, the educational establishments needed to focus more on research. “Good research would mean better teaching faculty and students with multi-pronged approach. The technologies and the system should converge,” he said while calling upon the faculty and students to learn integrated system design. Giving a success mantra to the students who would be graduating from the university, he said the future was for those who could design, integrate and manage systems and technologies such as nanotechnology, biotechnology and information technology.

    Stressing upon the audience to work for the nation’s welfare, he said everyone needed to deliver back to the system and society. “Nations with knowledge and synergy are the world leaders and others follow,” he said.

    He outlined 10 pillars of Indian development profile 2020. Based his interaction with 12 million youths in the country and abroad, he said everyone would have become unique and think out of the box. “There has to be aim, regular update of knowledge, hard work and perseverance to achieve a goal in life,” he said while trying to strike a chord with the students who cheered to every advice handed out to them.

    Earlier, he was at Sanghol in Fatehgarh Sahib to inaugurate the International Conference on Rural Development Challenges and Opportunities. The conference is being organised by Lord Rana’s, UK-based charitable trust at Cordia Group of Institutes.

    He said nuclear energy was a clean energy and it would be beneficial for the people and the state. He said the states must go for nuclear energy.

    He also stressed the need to ensure development of rural India by strengthening PURA (Providing Urban Facilities in Rural Areas) and to take it as a mission. Elaborating on PURA, he said it involved physical, electronic and economic connectivity. He suggested to the DC and Lord Rana to make Sanghol village “Sanghol PURA”.
     
  18. JAISWAL

    JAISWAL Senior Member Senior Member

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    ok friends whats the update or any news on Agni-6 (A6).
    As mentioned in this artical posted.

    .
    [​IMG]
    as underlined
     
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  19. KS

    KS Bye bye DFI Veteran Member

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    irrelevant
    A6 ??? Wtf.
     
  20. sayareakd

    sayareakd Moderator Moderator

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    Must be A5 will be without MIRV and A6 with MIRV since RV has to redesigned.

    other explanation can be that A5 is bigger so it cannot come inside sub, therefore A6 for sub with MIRV.
     
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