Aesa Radars - Future of Air Combat.

Discussion in 'Indian Air Force' started by venom, Aug 17, 2009.

  1. venom

    venom DFI Technocrat

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    Options open to India at present-
    1.APG-79 [F-18 Hornet E\F]
    2.APG-80 [F-16 Block 70]
    3.ZHUK-AE [Mig-35]
    4.Captor-AESA [Euro Fighter Typhoon]
    5.RBE-2 AESA [Rafale]
    6.NORA [Gripen NG]
    7.Elta 2052 [LCA]
    8.Irbis-E AESA [Su-30MKI] - There are rumors about an aesa version of Irbis-E PESA being developed for Su-30MKI upgrade.


    Just go through this articles.

    Defunct Humanity

    Defunct Humanity: AESA radars for fighters. Brief review.
     
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  3. A.V.

    A.V. New Member

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    the rumours have settled down mate, its official the new AESA to be open for public viewing on active mode at MAKS 2009
    please check the maks 2009 thread for detail
     
  4. venom

    venom DFI Technocrat

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    That's great ...... 230 MKI's with AESA radar,a deadly force...
     
  5. A.V.

    A.V. New Member

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    the radars are not yet fitted into the mki my friend it is meant for future upgrades and also for the PAKFA
     
  6. venom

    venom DFI Technocrat

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    Ya i know....They are meant for MLU which might begin in 2011-2012 as the 1st MKI was inducted in 2002
     
  7. SATISH

    SATISH DFI Technocrat Stars and Ambassadors

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    why isnt the SABR by northrop-grumman not shown here?
     
  8. pyromaniac

    pyromaniac Founding Member

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    I am sure you have all heard about AESA and while all of us understand that it is an important piece of technology, many of us don't understand what makes AESA radar's good. Well, I hope the following information will help you guys better understand what AESA is and what makes it so good.

    So basically, AESA stands for Active Electronically Scanned Array. In an AESA radar the transmitter and the receiver are composed of numerous small T/R modules. AESA radar has instantaneous scanning that have low probability of intercept. They have simple designs because they require no hydraulics or hinges for antenna movement. Its less infrastructure and with no motion so it is cheaper to maintain. Some more main advantages are that they have extremely fast scanning, multiple target tracking, can also function as a radio jammer and the low probability of interception.

    AESA radars offer significant gains in reliability. By focusing power at specific directions, the pilot can gain more detection range providing "first detect" for air-to-air engagements, enabling first shoot/first kill by missiles fired Beyond Visual Range (BVR) mode. The longer standoff range also allows more time for persistent target observation, information sharing, tactical analysis and commander assessment before critical decisions are made.

    The Russian company Phazotron unveiled the Zhuk AE AESA radar installed on the MiG-35AESA radars are emitting not only radar signals, but can also be employed for non traditional ISR, as well as electronic attack. For example, some of the elements can transmit and receive signals modulated with datalink waveform, transferring large amounts of data (such as live video or aerial imagery) over high bandwidth datalinks. Similar techniques can be used for electronic attack, to jam or deceive electronic systems operated by enemy forces.

    The mechanical scanning systems used in previous systems were prone to failures, which grounded the entire aircraft. The new systems use solid-state technology and electronic scanning, to replace the mechanical systems but also introduce multiple elements to replace the single channel design of previous systems. Therefore, AESA radars can sustain certain degree of failure without grounding the aircraft or disabling the entire radar system. Furthermore, when designed with modular approach, AESA radars can be gradually upgraded, by replacing the solid-state receive/transmit modules based on Gallium-arsenide semiconductors technology with more advanced elements, thus significantly improving performance.

    AESA radars have

    * High ECM resistance:
    o The extremely fast scan of the radar makes it difficult for an ECM device to find the correct azimuth and elevation in which the radar's main lobe is currently directed.
    o High gain associated with AESA radars gives them high ERP, which makes it difficult for an active ECM device, using noise jamming techniques, to successfully jam such a radar.
    * The extremely fast scan of the emitter gives it LPI features.
    * Less susceptibility to voltage failures, due to the relatively very low voltage in which each and every single radiating element operates; This is combined with graceful degradation.


    AESA VS PESA


    PESA

    In a passive electronically scanned array (PESA), the microwave feed network in the back of the antenna is driven by a single high-power Radio frequency(RF) source (transmitter), sending its waves into phase shift modules (usually digitally-controlled), which, in turn, feed the transmitting/receiving elements.Using beam steering they provide stealth, interleaving modes and reliability. However, the shift in phase of the radar signal comes at a cost. High-power phase control leads to losses in the signal and a consequent reduction in radar sensitivity. Typical total losses in early systems resulted in a factor of 10 reductions in radiated power; in modern systems these losses are still in the factor of 5 ranges.

    Electronic steering and shaping of a beam provides unprecedented beam agility - beam shape and direction can be digitally controlled by a computer within a matter of tens of milliseconds. Such beam agility makes it possible for one phased array radar to act as multiple radars each with its own beam shape and scan pattern! This is referred to as interleaving radar modes. The same radar can be tracking for airborne threats using one beam shape and scan pattern while searching for ground targets using another beam shape and scan pattern.

    The Russian NIIP N-011M Bars radar fitted on the Su-30MKI and the NIIP Bars-29 radar proposed to be fitted on the MiG-29M2 being offered to the IAF are examples of phased array radars

    AESA

    An AESA, instead, has an individual RF source for each of its many transmitting elements. This provides for a graceful degradation, so that many T/R(transmitter-receiver) modules may fail and the radar would not stop functioning. AESA employs a grid of hundreds of small (TR) modules that are linked together by high-speed processors. Each TR module has its own transmitter, receiver, processing power, and a small spikelike radiator antenna on top. The TR module can be programmed to act as a transmitter, receiver, or radar. The TR modules in the AESA system can all work together to create a powerful radar, but they can do different tasks in parallel, with some operating together as a radar warning receiver, others operating together as a jammer, and the rest operating as a radar. TR modules can be reassigned to any role, with output power or receiver sensitivity of any one of the "subsystems" defined by such temporary associations proportional to the number of modules.

    AESA provides 10-30 times more net radar capability plus significant advantages in the areas of range resolution, countermeasure resistance and flexibility. In addition, it supports high reliability / low maintenance goals, which translate into lower lifecycle costs. Since the power supplies, final power amplification and input receive amplification, are distributed, MTBF is significantly higher, 10-100 times, than that of a passive ESA or mechanical array. This results in higher system readiness and significant savings in terms of life cycle cost of a weapon system, especially a fighter.


    CONCLUSIONS

    So, in summary A PESA radar is simpler to construct than an AESA. However, they both their drawbacks. Due to the heat generated by these devices, there has to be a very good cooling system on board to make sure that they don't fry themselves. In addition, another problem is that they have a somewhat limited range. With that said, this is really not a big concern right now because of the fact that the majority of the countries that use these radars have a well built network of Land based radar in addition to AWACS support. This will help overcome the shortages of AESA and the PESA radars.

    With that said, The advantages of AESA and PESA are numerous - they can scan an area much faster (miliseconds compared to seconds), their signals are much harder to detect, and some advanced AESA models can scan, track and even work as a jammer at the same time. Advanced versions can also scan for air and ground targets at the same time in addition to tracking much more targets than normal radar. With that said, AESA is the future of radar technology as it offers features that cannot be matched by any other radar platform. Its combination of high durability and its potential for tremendous multi-tasking makes it an attractive options for countries that seek to build a modern air force.
    Like I have already stated, AESA radars are remarkably good at multi tasking. In addition to emitting radar signals, then can also be employed for non traditional ISR, as well as electronic attack. For example, some of the elements can transmit and receive signals modulated with datalink waveform, transferring large amounts of data (such as live video or aerial imagery) over high bandwidth datalinks. Similar techniques can be used for electronic attack, to jam or deceive electronic systems operated by enemy forces.

    The mechanical scanning systems used in previous systems were prone to failures, which grounded the entire aircraft. The new systems use solid-state technology and electronic scanning, to replace the mechanical systems but also introduce multiple elements to replace the single channel design of previous systems. Therefore, AESA radars can sustain certain degree of failure without grounding the aircraft or disabling the entire radar system. Furthermore, when designed with modular approach, AESA radars can be gradually upgraded, by replacing the solid-state receive/transmit modules based on Gallium-arsenide semiconductors technology with more advanced elements, thus significantly improving performance.
     
  9. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    there is also MMR multi mode radar that will be going in our LCA it uses a combination of AESA AND PESA.
     
  10. unlimittautar

    unlimittautar New Member

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    I heard that India deveolped the AESA radar....is that true?
     
  11. ahmedsid

    ahmedsid Top Gun Senior Member

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    Not true, we havent developed a fully functional AESA to the best of my knowledge, but we are working on one I am sure, but it wont be ready anytime soon.
     
  12. Dark Sorrow

    Dark Sorrow Respected Member Senior Member

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    The greatest advantage of AESA radar is that they are not mechanically steared. This reduce detection time of a threat from 50-60 sec in case of PESA to 2-3 sec in case AESA. The radio wave emitted by AESA tend to be more sharper than PESA. With AESA the band of the radar has become less important to get sharper and clear images as the beam emmited are more sharper on the other hand the sharpness of image for PESA depend on the band. AESA radar can operate on different frequencies even different bands simultaniously but PESA can't.
     
  13. John

    John Guest

    True, in the case of advanced AESA like apg-79 the time between initial detection to target track to full target vector takes microseconds per aircraft and within 10 seconds the radar can track over 20 aircraft.

    YouTube - F 35 Radar Fight Test - AN/APG-81 - F-35 AESA Radar
     
  14. John

    John Guest

    The figures of radar ranges are a bit in-accurate, the APG-79 has a max detection range over 500km and can track a 1m2 target well over 185 km and allows the SH to deploy the aim-120D at nearly maximum range of 210 km against a non-maneuvering target and destroy it. Apg-79 is second only to the APG-77 in terms of ranges and radar resolution and the radar has over 1200 T/R modules, RBE-2 AESA and CEASAR too has over 1000T/R modules. RBE-2 AESA is very accurate as well however max. range is below 300km, US radars also boast longer MTBFs are fully combat proven. Northrop is now requesting the US govt. to clear the SABR for export so that it can offered on the Euro fighter and Gripen NG, if indeed it is cleared we could get the SABR on T-3 Efs, as of yet no details on the SABR or RACR. APG-80 has a max detection range of over 220 NM or well over 420km. Apg-79 allows the SH to pull AWACS roles and control over 36 aircraft in battle.
     
  15. venom

    venom DFI Technocrat

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    Purchasing F-18 & F-16 will be the biggest mistake.....

    I agree that both the American fighters are very capable but the only drawback is that they are American...In case of war if US applies sanctions what are the options left with us?

    US just uses other countries for its strategic objectives like it did with Pakistan during the afghan war.Pakistan got all the goodies when the war was on but once it was over even the paid F-16's were witheld.

    Its better we go for Rafale,Mig-35 or Typhoon.
     
  16. venom

    venom DFI Technocrat

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  17. John

    John Guest

    well sure we have to be careful with US platforms but the way we seem interested in C-17s, Apaches, V-22s, Chinooks, AEGIS, etc. seems like the MOD certainly is not shying away from buying US. offcourse we'll have to wait and see till price bidding begins for the MRCA, this is when the competition really heats up and that could force the US to provide full tot just to have a chance of winning, cant say much now. Secondly SH and SV score very high in avionics, weapons flexibility and life cycle costs. SH, SV, mig-35 and Rafale have an acceptable supply chain. SH is also gr8 because its the only contender with upgrades already being worked on beyond 2020 with block-3. IAf pilots know how mature and easy it is to fly, plus with weapons that reach out and hit very far at low costs is also gr8. In a full A2A config. the SH can carry upto 14 A2A missiles with 12 of them being long range Aim-120 C/Ds, which is more than all the others, it can carry upto 24 SDBs in a single A2G mission and hit targets at 110km whether moving, hardened and static, such flexibility wont go un-noticed especially when our pilots go to the US for weapons trials. During trials the SH will outshine all others, in radar, netcentricity, awacs roles, tanking roles, A2G, maritime missions, cockpit functionality, sturdy and reliable operations, quick reaction roles, intimate ground support, SEAD missions, taking in account that even the Navy would like to have a strong aircraft for dedicated maritime operations the SH remains the ideal aircraft. Knowing our mentality our IAF and Navy would like to have an aircraft that is as multirole as possible and SH remains un-challenged.

    Sure EF, Rafale, mig-35, SV and Gripen will score better than the SH in aerodynamic performance for now but the SH's odds will improve if IAF chooses to test fly the GE 414 EPE which will improve its performance and range. knowing that Rafale is the longest range contender while SH is more of a medium range aircraft, now taking the nature of our competition, SH falls more in the Medium Range Combat Aircraft category. plus by the time the first aircraft arrives we'll have a very low level of fighters, SH is the only candidate that can be delivered on time. If it comes with full-tot, SH is a sure winner.
     
  18. venom

    venom DFI Technocrat

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    The V. Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design finally got – literally – to take the wraps off its latest radar on the third day of the MAKS 2009 air show.

    The Russian institute, often referred to as simply NIIP – for understandable reasons – showed the design of a prototype active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar on its stand at the event. The system is most likely destined for Russia’s fifth-generation fighter, known as PAK FA

    For most of the first three days the antenna and housing was covered by a canvas. The cover may have been removed briefly on the first day during the visit of Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, but otherwise remained out of view. NIIP was – apparently – still awaiting final approval to show the AESA publicly for the first couple of days of the event.

    The radar antenna shows a slight ellipse, likely indicative of the nose shape of the Sukhoi T-50 prototype for the PAK FA. Flight testing of the radar will begin in 2010.

    The first T-50 airframe, a static fatigue test item, is already in Moscow, and a maiden flight of the design is now expected in November.


    Ares Homepage
     
  19. venom

    venom DFI Technocrat

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  20. Dark Sorrow

    Dark Sorrow Respected Member Senior Member

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    Russian Development

    The Irbis(snow leapord in Russian) AESA :

    The Irbis is a co-development between LRDE of India and Tikhomirov NIIP of Russia at a cost of US$160 million.

    This new new, active phased-array airborne radar is to find its way into India's Su-30 MKI's by 2010 (replacing the present NO11M Bars phased array radar)

    The Zhuk-MSF / Sokol-3 from the Phazotron NIIR OKB

    Zhuk-MSF is the most up to date radar design by Phazotron. Sokol uses a non-equidistant rather than the traditional linear radar field distribution, which, Phazotron says, allows a fivefold radar cost reduction over a traditionally designed phased array radar. The production radar will have a 980mm antenna diameter (37dB gain) and weigh 275kg. The radar tracks 24-30 targets, engages the most dangerous 6 to 8 of them. Its electronic beam steering will give ±70 deg spatial coverage in both axes. Power output is 8kW peak, 2 - 3kW average. It is designed for high reliability, and is frequency agile with LPI and anti ECM features. Phazotron says it will be capable of interleaving between air-to-air and air-to-ground modes.

    Velocity search: 245km head-on vs fighter target.(This figure is no longer quoted. The mode may have been removed)

    Range-while-search, lookup mode: 180-190km head-on / 80km tail-on vs fighter target.

    Range-while-search, lookdown mode : 170km head-on / 60km tail-on vs fighter target.

    Track-while-scan mode: 150km head-on vs fighter target.

    Against a large target such as a bomber or AWACS aircraft detection range comfortably exceeds 300km.



    The Koyopo-F AESA :

    [​IMG]

    The electronically scanned Kopyo-F is still under development and is expected to cost around 50% more than the Kopyo-M. It is a lighter and more reliable set, coming in three versions that offer low, medium and higher ranges. With an antenna diameter of 440 mm, it is aimed for small nosed aircraft or as a rearward facing radar for the Su-30/Su-34 series.The transmitter has a peak power output of 4 kW and 0.4 kW average.

    It has been offered to India for the LCA.
     
  21. Dark Sorrow

    Dark Sorrow Respected Member Senior Member

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    Isreali Development

    The Elta EL/M-2052 (offered to India) :

    [​IMG]

    Features :
    > 1500 + T/R modules (the F-22's has 2000)
    > ridiculously high tracking capability of 64 targets
    > In air-to-sea mode, it can acquire and track surface targets up to 160 nm away
    > see more in the pic

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]
     

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