23rd January , Birthday of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose

Discussion in 'Introductions & Greetings' started by Pintu, Jan 23, 2010.

  1. Pintu

    Pintu New Member

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    Friends, today is an auspicious day born , one of the greatest son of mother India, and a legend who became 'Enemy of the Emperor' and made the sacrifice to free his motherland from bondage in foreign hands, Great Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose born today on 23rd January , 1897 in this very day in Cuttak , Orissa. This day is celebrated as 'Desh Prem Divas'.

    [​IMG]

    Netaji Subhas Chndra Bose


    Netaji you always inspire us , in this day we feel your absence.
     
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  3. bengalraider

    bengalraider DFI Technocrat Stars and Ambassadors

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    "Jodi tor dak sune keo nai aaase tobe ekla cholo re"

    I pay my humble obesiences to the greatest son mother India has ever had
    Netaji you live forever

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kChz4uldQL8

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L6SUSTc2JhE

    Below i post the link of mission netaji , it is a non profit organisation being run by the delhi based journalist Anuj Dhar that aims to bring the true story behind the sad untimely demise of our beloved netaji to light, please join up guys

    MissionNetaji.org

    Joi Netaji Joi Hind!
     
  4. RPK

    RPK Indyakudimahan Senior Member

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    The Hindu : States / Other States : Netaji currency made public


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    A currency issued by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose’s Bank of Independence has been made public here on the eve of his 103rd birth anniversary, leading to excitement among his supporters.

    In the 1980s, Ram Kishore Dubey, a retired contractor with the State Irrigation Department, discovered the note in his grandfather’s Ramayana book, but did not realise its historical significance till recently.

    “My grandfather, Praagilal, worked for Netaji in the Azaad Hind Fauj and passed away in 1958,” says the 63-year-old Dubey.

    “He used to stay away from the family for months on end working covertly for the INA [Indian National Army] in the Bundelkhand region on a recruitment drive for its Jhansi ki Rani Regiment, led by Lakshmi Swaminathan. He gave up his land for the cause of the army and so Netaji rewarded him with this note promising him the amount in independent India.”

    The currency, of denomination one lakh, has a photograph of Bose on the left side and a pre-independence map of the Indian territory with the inscription “ swatantra bharat” in Hindi on the other. In the middle are inscribed the words “ Jai Hind” in English, with the words “I promise to pay the bearer the sum of one Lac” below it.

    On the top of the note is a series of flags of the Azaad Hind Fauj over a bold inscription saying “Bank of Independence” with “good wishes” inscribed at the bottom.

    “Nobody is aware of the this fact that submitting to the demands of the British, Nehruji [Jawaharlal Nehru] gave them Subhash Bose in return for India’s independence,” says Mr. Dubey.

    Several historians contend that in April 1944, Netaji established the Azad Hind Bank or the Bank of Independence in Rangoon (now Yangon) to manage funds donated by the Indian community from across the world.
     
  5. Pintu

    Pintu New Member

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    http://www.ptinews.com/news/482028_Shillong-pays-glowing-tributes-to-Netaji

    Shillong pays glowing tributes to Netaji

    STAFF WRITER 16:21 HRS IST

    Shillong, Jan 23 (PTI) Shillong, where the legendary leader came on several occasions, paid rich tributes to Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose on his 114th birth anniversary today.

    Holding portraits of Netaji and raising patriotic slogans, people took part in 'prabhat pheris' (morning processions). Floral tributes were paid at Netaji Square on Jail Road, the Netaji statue at State Central Library premises and other parts of the city.

    Hoisting the National Flag in front of Netaji's statue, Deputy Chief Minister Bindo M Lanong called upon the people, especially the youth, to learn from the life and deeds of Netaji.

    "Netaji is recognised as an international figure," he said and stressed on the need to declare January 23 as a national holiday.

    Also speaking on the occasion, Naba Bhattacharjee, president of the Greater Shillong Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Birthday Celebration Committee lamented that revolutionary icons like Netaji were spared little space in history books.
     
  6. F-14

    F-14 Global Defence Moderator Senior Member

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    " you give me blood i shall give you freedom"

    this qoute of netaji has a signifcence today
    our fight against internal and external terror is our second freedom struggle and this can not be won by Ghandiji's principles it has to fight with Blood and guts
     
  7. Shredder

    Shredder Regular Member

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    I wonder how things would have been if our dear leader Netaji had led our Nation :icon_salut: .
     
  8. Pintu

    Pintu New Member

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  9. Pintu

    Pintu New Member

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    The Assam Tribune Online

    Tributes to Netaji
    Staff Reporter

    GUWAHATI, Jan 23 – People of the State today celebrated the birthday of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose with floral tributes and patriotic fervour. At a function organised in the RG Baruah Sports Complex, the Greater Assam Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Birthday Celebration Committee celebrated the 114th birthday of Netaji with a day-long programme.

    Speaking as the chief guest on the occasion, Chief Minister Tarun Gogoi said that Netaji was a leader of the masses, who believed that the uplift of the poor and downtrodden would ensure the nation’s progress. “Though his ways were different from those of Mahatma Gandhi and many other freedom fighters, his goal was the same, and that was to get independence for the country,” added Gogoi.

    The function was also marked by various cultural programmes.

    Jnanpeeth awardee Dr Mamoni Raisom Goswami, novelist and Sahitya Akademi awardee Dr Dhrubajyoti Bora and theatre personality Kulada Kumar Bhattacharya were felicitated on the occasion.

    Dr Goswami also released the souvenir brought out on the occasion.

    Ajay Dutta, ex-MLA and chief advisor of the Birthday Celebration Committee in his speech outlined Netaji's connection with the people of Assam and the Northeast.

    Expressing her views, Dr Mamoni Raisom Goswami said that Netaji had left a deep impact not only on the people of the country but also on the people abroad, including Thailand.

    “At a point of time, it was felt that people are forgetting Mahatma Gandhi or Netaji. But now I believe that in the tumultous situation of today, people are sincerely remembering the ideals of those great leaders. In a way, those leaders are reborn today,” she added.

    Minister of Excise and Border area Development Gautam Roy, president of the committee and MLA Captain Robin Bordoloi, noted sports personality Suren Ram Phukan, journalist Bijoy Krishna Nath and social activist Gautam Bannerjee were among the other dignitaries present on the occasion.

    Another Netaji birthday programme was organised at Adabari Chariali. The organisers paid their tributes to the national leader as a ‘symbol of spirit and sacrifice’. A day-long programme was also held at the compound of Gobardhan Lal Roy of AT Road. The Pandu Maligaon Aikya Sanmilan also celebrated Netaji’s birthday with great patriotic fervour.
     
  10. Pintu

    Pintu New Member

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    KalingaTimes.com: Idolising Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose

    Idolising Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose

    [​IMG]

    By Manoj Kar
    Kendrapara, Jan. 22: Inspired by heroic deeds of Netaji Subhas Chandra, a legal practitioner here has turned his home into a miniature museum housing several rare collections related to the life of the great revolutionary freedom fighter.

    Meet Mohammad Mustaque. For the 45-year-old lawyer, dabbling in collecting and preserving antiques was a hobby. Now it's a passion. In his private museum at Badahat locality in Kendrapara town, a wide range of collections on the champion freedom fighter find a pride of place.

    The unique collections include among other things rare photographs, letters, manuscripts, magazines, journals and coins related to the great leader. Majority of these collections fall under rare category and are worthy of preservation in national level museum.

    “Since childhood, I was an ardent fan of Netaji. His magnetic personality drew me to know more and more about Netaji. The children of my age adored Bollywood heroes, but for me, he remained my idol. Later on, I began to collect everything that had even Netaji's name,” Mustaque recalled.

    “It was three decades of perseverance and hard work that is now paying dividends. I take pride in the fact my personal collection on the great leaders are drawing people from various parts.”

    For the collections, a lot has been spent from my own purse. Right from the street corner book shops at College streets in Kolkata to various individuals in the state, my search for Netaji articles still goes on. I am now planning to turn the private museum into a trust as organisations are showing interest to conserve the collected articles.

    An old studio photograph of Netaji with the family members of Ashok Banerjee, a lawyer from the leader's birthplace – Cuttack - is one of the prized possessions of Mustaque. The picture depicts octogenarian Ashok Banerjee, who still resides in Cuttack , sitting on the lap of Netaji in 1935. At that time, Ashok Banerjee was only four years old.

    The 1913 gazette notification of Bihar and Odisha, where it was mentioned that Subhash Chandra Bose passed out the high school entrance examination in 1913, is treasured by the young lawyer.

    A handwritten letter of Captain Laxmi Saigal of Indian National Army (INA), an original copy of the magazine 'Forward' published by Netaji, a special issue of INA 'Basumati', a Bengali magazine, 'Meaning of Leftism', an article written by Netaji in Socialist Republican magazine, are among the collections of Mustaque.

    A postal stamp issued by INA to commemorate the liberation of Manipur is one of the treasures collected by Mustaque from different sources.

    Two rare coins, which the government minted to observe the centenary of Netaji in 1997, can also be found at Mustaque's house.

    Though the centenary of Netaji was observed in 1997, inadvertently in some coins the centenary year was wrongly mentioned as 1996.

    Mustaque also possesses three of these coins in his museum.

    The homeopathy box, granite glass, lantern and some rare photos of Netaji, which he procured from late Abdus Sattar Hazzari's house at Fazalpur village under Korei police station, have also been kept at the house of Mustaque in Fakirabad. Abdus was a close associate of Netaji.
     
  11. Pintu

    Pintu New Member

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    The Telegraph - Calcutta (Kolkata) | Nation | Special galleries on Netaji

    Special galleries on Netaji
    - Azad Hind radio paraphernalia on display


    OUR CORRESPONDENT

    [​IMG]
    Netaji’s birthday being celebrated
    on Saturday


    Cuttack, Jan. 23: The Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Birthplace Museum here formally opened two exclusive galleries to educate visitors on the Azad Hind Radio and National Bank of Azad Hind today on the occasion of the freedom fighter’s 113th birth anniversary.

    The theme of the gallery devoted to Azad Hind Radio tells the little known story of how the radio service was started by Bose in Germany on January 7, 1942, “to unite Indians to fight for freedom” and its headquarters were shifted to Singapore and later Rangoon following the war in south-east Asia.

    Part of the gallery is the famous declarations of Netaji that were broadcast by the four radio stations that functioned under the propaganda and publicity department of the Azad Hind government. Besides, the visitors can now hear the last Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar’s verse “Ghazio mein by rahegi jab talak iman ki, Tab toh London tak chalegi regh hindustan ki (So long as the crusaders are inspired by faith, the Indian sword will continue to sweep up to London)”. The Azad Hind programme in Hindustani used to open with this verse.

    “It’s a humble attempt to recreate Azad Hind Radio and National Bank of Azad Hind in the two galleries to give visitors a feel of how they were functioning as part of Netaji’s provisional government of Azad Hind,” museum curator J.P. Das said.

    Bose had formed the provisional government of Azad Hind on October 21, 1943. He declared his decision for war against the British and its allies on October 23, 1943, from the radio station of Azad Hind. The provisional government, as a follow-up step, established the National Bank of Azad Hind and struck its own coins and currency notes, among others. “We have tried to recreate a setting to take the visitors back to a working day of the bank with counters and original artefacts — rare currency notes and coins of Netaji’s provisional government era,” the museum curator said.

    Records at the gallery indicate that the Azad Hind Bank was established in Rangoon in April 1944. The money collected by the Azad Hind Government was kept in the Bank. The bank had an authorised capital of Rs 50 lakh and a paid-up capital of Rs 25 lakh.

    To mark the occasion, the Cuttack Municipal Corporation also came up with an archway at Jail Road from where an approach road leads to the main entrance of the museum at Oriya Bazaar. Sculptures of Netaji leading INA soldiers forms part of the arch.

    Mayor Saumendra Ghosh said: “The archway was built at a cost of Rs 18 lakh by sculptors Paresh Das and Saroj Bhanja.” Chief minister Naveen Patnaik formally inaugurated it this afternoon.
     
  12. bengalraider

    bengalraider DFI Technocrat Stars and Ambassadors

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    J&K Leaders pays homage to Netaji Subhash Chander Bose on his 113th birth anniversary




    Jammu, January 23 (Scoop News) –Indian Nation pays homage to the legendary freedom fighter Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose on his 113th birth anniversary today. A series of functions are being organised through out the country to mark the day. Netaji led the Indian National Army to challenge the British Rule.

    In Jammu and Kashmir, the main function was held at Town Hall, organized by Freedom Fighters Association,(FFA) Jammu, to celebrate the 113th birth anniversary of Netaji Subhash Chander Bose.

    On the occasion, Minister for R&B G.M.Saroori has said that the best homage to Netaji Subhash Chander Bose is to follow his mission and spread his message of peace and tranquility, which he gave to the nation during freedom struggle.

    Among others, President, FFA, Vaid Gandhorta, Senior, Vice President of FFA, Tej Ram Dogra,, besides, prominent citizen and heads of various NGOs and educational institutions were present on the occasion. A large number of students of different schools also participated in the function. Oma Dutt and Harnam Singh, the living legends of the Indian National Army were also present on the occasion
    The function started with hoisting of tricolor, followed by garlanding on the statue of Netaji Subhash Chander Bose by the Minister and the members of the FFA.
    Speaking on the occasion, Saroori said that Netaji sacrificed his life for the freedom of India. He said the formation of Indian National Army by Netaji was the first triumph of INC but for British rulers a big set back, which ultimately compelled them to vacate India. He said Netaji was a man of his words and never compromised on the dignity of the nation. He said Subhashji always opposed the policies of the British rulers and spread the message to fight against foreign yoke. He said Subhash Chanderji never stooped before the arrogance of the British rulers and instead fought against their policies and the treatment they meted out to the Indians.
    He said the best homage to the leader was to follow his footsteps and imbibe the lessons he gave to the nation. He appealed youth, students and the participants to follow the footprints of the great leader and take forward the missions he has left. He said Netaji was a strong advocate of secularism and his role for strengthening and maintaining secular character of Indian National Congress would be remembered for long. He said youth have to spread the message of Netaji by projecting the essence of India before the world as a peace loving nation.
    Recalling the role of s. Indra Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi, Saroori said that both the astute leaders also sacrificed their lives for the cause of unity and integrity of the nation. He said both the leaders took forward the mission of Netaji and never dithered from the policies of the Indian National Congress.
    Highlighting the cherished values of Indian nation , Saroori said that Indian leadership has always extended the hand of friendship to neighboring countries but Pakistan did not reciprocate in the same manner. He said the motive behind opening Rawlakote and Muzaferabad roads, to increase people to people contacts, was a gesture to spread the message of peace.
    Referring to the increasing terrorism activities across the border, Saroori said a stable Pakistan was in the best interest of India, and Jammu and Kashmir State adding that the at national leadership was making every effort to restore peace in the sub-continent
    Regretting that the State of Jammu and Kashmir has lagged far behind in the development due to long spell of turmoil, the Minister said the liberal funding of Centre has helped the State to come out from this morass gradually. He said the Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh and UPA Chairperson, s. Sonia Gandhi have taken personal interest in the development of the State, adding that persuasion of Chief Minister, Omar Abdullah and active support of Ghulam Nabi Azad has resulted in the sanctioning of several mega projects for the State.
    Vaid Gandhotra, Tejram Dogra and Sunil Dimple, also spoke on the occasion and highlighted the role of Netaji Subhash Chnader Bose. They said the need of the hour was to follow the mission of the leader.
    The Minister also addressed a similar function held at Samba. Speaking on the occasion Saroori said that maintaining communal harmony was the first step towards peace and cautioned the people against the forces who are adamant to divide people on the caste, creed and religion. He said people have already rejected such elements, indicating that there was no space for the anti national elements the State. He said the Government was working for exploring employment avenues for the educated youth, and several initiatives have been taken in this direction. He said the recently announced employment package would yield good results and appealed educated youth to come forward and take its benefits.
    MLC, Abdul Gani Vakil, while speaking on the occasion, said that a stable Government was a guarantee for the welfare of the people , adding that every step would be taken to strengthen the hands of the coalition formation. “It was our duty to take forward the development programmes started by the Government”, he added.
    Former, MP, Janak Raj Gupta, B. S. Samyal of Seva Dal also spoke on the occasion and shared light on the role and sacrifices of Netaji’s.

    Panthers Party Prof. Bhim Singh, Chairman, National Panthers Party and Member, National Integration Council called on the youth of the country to take a lesson from the life and sacrifices of Netaji Subhash Chander Bose so that all of us may build new India of Netaji’s dream where every citizen shall enjoy a dignified living as a citizen of India, where corruption, communalism and criminalization shall cease to exist and India shall lead the world towards global peace, harmony and progress. Prof. Bhim Singh said that this was the dream of Netaji Subhash Chander Bose who has been not only forgotten but ignored by the parties which have been ruling India since independence.

    Addressing party workers Prof. Bhim Singh said that Samul Kranti (Ultimate Revolution) that is inevitable and is the only way out to bring Ultimate Revolution through human dignity without resort to violence in the 21
    st century. He said that Netaji Subhash Chander Bose has become more relevant today than ever before to lead the country towards peace and progress.
    Balwant Singh Mankotia, State President, J&K National Panthers Party called on the youth of the country to join the new revolution to fight out casteism, drug culture, terrorism and hatred so that the future of the new generation remained safe and secured.
    The Panthers Party in a resolution paid tributes to Netaji Subhash Chander Bose on the occasion of his birthday. The Panthers Party also demanded to declare 23rd January, the birthday of Netaji as a Shining India Day and should be celebrated throughout the country to let the new generations follow the part of Netaji.
    www.scoopnews.in
     
  13. bengalraider

    bengalraider DFI Technocrat Stars and Ambassadors

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  14. bengalraider

    bengalraider DFI Technocrat Stars and Ambassadors

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    for you from THE FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS OF INDIA | MissionNetaji.org

    THE FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS OF INDIA


    Submitted by vinayras on Fri, 06/20/2008 - 08:28.
    Netaji addresses students of the Tokyo University in November 1944​



    I do not propose to speak to such a distinguished gathering on the commonplace things that you hear and read about India. I think it would be far better if I speak to you on the more fundamental problems of India. Having being a student of philosophy myself, I am naturally more interested in fundamental problems. I hope you will also agree with me that I should rather speak to you today on some of the fundamental problems that face my country, both in the present as well as in the future.

    In my travels abroad, I have often found that people generally have a wrong and sometimes a rather funny idea about my country. For instance, among the people in Europe, the general idea about India is that it is a land in which three things can be found: Snakes, fakirs and maharajas. Among those who have been influenced by British propaganda, the general idea about India is that it is a country where people are always fighting among themselves, and where the strong hand of Britain is required in order to maintain peace and order among the people.

    If you approach the Orientalists in Europe, that is, the experts in Indology, you will find that they look upon India as a land of mystics and philosophers, a land which at one time produced a very rich philosophy, but which is today as dead as the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Babylon.

    Now the question is, "what is India in reality?" No doubt we have a very ancient civilization, but unlike other ancient civilizations, such as Egypt or Babylon, Phoenicia or even Greece, the ancient culture and civilization of India is not dead. It still lives in the present. And we Indians of today think the same thoughts fundamentally, the same thoughts and have the same feelings, the same ideals of life, as our forefathers who lived 2,000 or 3,000 years ago. In other words, there is a continuity, historical and cultural continuity, extending from ancient times till the present day - which is in some ways a very remarkable thing in history. Now, in order to understand India, this fundamental fact should first be understood, namely, that the India of the past is not dead. India of the past lives in the present, and will live in the future.

    Against this background, this ancient background, we see changes in our national life from age to age. During the last 3,000 years, people have come into India from outside with new ideas, some times with new cultures. All these new influences, ideas and cultures have been gradually absorbed into the national life of India, so that in spite of the fact that, fundamentally we have the same culture and civilization as we had several thousand years ago, we have nevertheless changed and moved with the times. Today, in spite of our ancient background, we are able to live in a modern world and adapt ourselves to that world.

    Those who have been influenced, whether consciously or unconsciously by British propaganda, have the impression that India was very easily conquered by the British and also that after the British conquest of India our country was for the first time politically unified. Both these notions are entirely wrong and without foundation.

    In the first place, it is not true that India was easily conquered by the British. It took British 100 years, from 1757 to 1857, to finally subjugate India. Secondly, it is also an entirely wrong notion to think that India was politically unified by the British. The fact is that India was for the first time politically unified nearly 2,500 years ago under the Buddhist Emperor, Ashoka the Great. In reality, India of the time of Ashoka the Great was even larger than the India of today. Ashoka\\'s India included not only modern India, but also Afghanistan and a part of Persia.

    After the time of Ashoka, India has gone through many ups and downs in her national life. There have been periods decay, followed by periods of progress and national upheaval. But through these ups and downs in our national life, we have been able, in the long run, to keep our progress. About 1000 years after Ashoka, India again reached the zenith of progress under the Gupta Emperors. This was followed by another glorious epoch in Indian history about nine hundred years later under the Mogul Emperors. Therefore, it is worth remembering that the British notion that we have been unified politically under British rule is entirely wrong. All that the British have tried to do is to divide the Indian people and to weaken, disarm and emasculate them.

    I shall now present before you a problem which will interest scientists, and in particular students of sociology. The question is whether the Indian people have any right to live as a free nation. In other words, have they the strength and the vitality left in them to live and to develop themselves as a free nation? I personally hold the opinion that if a nation once loses its vitality, its inner vitality, then it has no right to exist. And even if it does continue to exist after loosing its vitality, that existence will have hardly any worth or value for mankind. The only reason why I stand for India\\'s freedom and believe as a free nation we shall have a glorious future is that I believe that we have sufficient vitality left in us to live as free men and develop as a nation.

    Now, if I have to answer this question as to whether sufficient vitality is left in us, I shall have to answer two questions: firstly, has our nation any creative faculty and secondly, is it prepared to fight and die in order to preserve its existence? These two tests have applied to India.

    With regard to the first question, we have seen that in spite of the British rule in India, in spite of innumerable restrictions and disadvantages which follow from foreign rule, we have been able to give numerous proofs during the century that in different departments of our national life we still have creative power.

    The number of philosophers and thinkers produced in India under British rule, the number of writers and poets that enslaved India has produced, the artistic revival in India in spite of British rule, the scientific progress made by the Indian people in spite of so many difficulties in the way of their education, the standard already attained by our leading scientists as compared with scientists in different parts of the world, the industrial progress made by India as a result of her own effort and initiative and last but not the least, the distinction which we have attained in the field of sports, all these go to show that in spite of being politically subjugated the vitality of the nation has remained intact.

    If under foreign rule and in spite of the obstacles and restrictions that follow from foreign rule, we could give so much proof of our creative faculty, then it stands to reason that when India is free and when the masses of the Indian people are afforded educational facilities, they will be able to give much better proof of their intellectual calibre and creative faculty in different walks of life.

    I have just referred to the first test of a nation\\'s vitality, namely, creative faculty. I shall now consider the second test, namely, as to whether the Indian people are able to fight and to die for the sake of freedom. On this point I should like to say, first of all, that, since the last great fight that they had with the British in 1857, the Indian people have not given up the struggle against the enemy, even for one day.
     
  15. bengalraider

    bengalraider DFI Technocrat Stars and Ambassadors

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    continued from above

    Unfortunately, owing to what I would call the folly of our forefathers, after our final defeat in 1857, the leaders in those days had allowed themselves to be disarmed. Whatever difficulty we have subsequently experienced in winning back our freedom has been due to largely our having been disarmed. But though owing to the mistake of the leaders the people were disarmed, nevertheless they continued to fight for their freedom in other ways.

    I shall not take up your time unnecessarily by giving a description of all the methods that have been used in India against the British. I will only say this, that all the methods that have been tried by revolutionists in different parts of the world for the achievement of their own independence have been tried in India.

    At the beginning of the century, particularly after the victory of Japan over Russia in 1904 and 1905, the freedom movement in India got a new impetus and since then, during the last 40 years, our revolutionaries have been studying very closely the methods of revolutionaries in other countries and they have tried to adopt as many of their methods as possible.

    They have tried also to manufacture secretly arms and explosives for the achievement of independence. As a development of this struggle for freedom, India tried a new experiment - Civil Disobedience or Passive Resistance-of which the best exponent was Mahatma Gandhi. Though personally I believe that this method will not succeed in bringing us complete independence, there is no doubt that it has greatly helped to rouse and unify the Indian people and also to keep up a movement of resistance against the foreign government. I should, therefore, say that the fact that in spite of all the difficulties that result from foreign rule, a nation can produce a new method and practice that method with a large measure of success is also a proof of that nation\\'s vitality. It shows that, that nation does not accept enslavement as a settled fact and is determined to struggle against it and to work out new methods for achieving independence.

    I have, as a revolutionary, made a very close study of the revolutionary movements in other countries, and I can say without any exaggeration that since 1857 we have used every possible method of revolutionary struggle. In the course of this struggle, tremendous sacrifices have been made and many have given their lives. There was, however, one method that still remained for us to take up and that was the organization of a real modern national army.

    That work we had not done up till recently because it was impossible to do that inside India under the eyes of the British army and the British police. But the moment this war gave the Indian people an opportunity of organizing a modern Indian national army outside India they at once seized it. As a result of that effort, and with the help of the Japanese Government and the armed forces of Japan, they have been able to build up this army.

    So my point is that throughout our revolutionary struggle against the British Government and their armed forces we have shown sufficient initiative, creative power and vitality and have made tremendous sacrifices. WE now hope that under the conditions, and with the advantages the war has given us, we shall be able, after all, to fulfil our national aspirations and win freedom for India.

    Having replied to the question regarding the vitality of the Indian people and their right to live as a free nation, I shall now attempt a sociological analysis of modern India, you have to take note of the three important factors. The first factor is the ancient background, that is, the ancient culture and civilisation of India, of which the Indian people of today are conscious, and of which they feel proud. The second factor is the struggle which has gone on without any break or interruption since we were finally overpowered by the British. And the third factor consists of certain influences which have come into India from outside.

    Modern India is composed of its ancient background, the unbroken national struggle against Britain, and the impact of influences from abroad.

    I shall now deal, in some detail with the influences which have reacted on India from outside and which have been responsible, to some extent, in making modern India what it is today. Among these outside influences, the first factor is the influence of Western thought which was crystallized in Liberalism, Constitutionalism and Democracy.

    In other words, since 1857, modern liberal and democratic thought has been influencing the intellectuals of India to a large extent.

    From the beginning of the present century, a new factor came into operation. After the victory of Japan over Russia in 1904-1905, the eyes of the Indian people were opened to a new movement in Asia -- the movement for the revival of not merely of Japan-of other Asiatic countries. Since then, Indian thought has been greatly interested in Asiatic revival. During the last 40 years we have been thinking not merely of what was happening inside India, but also of what was happening in other parts of Asia.

    Another important factor which had influenced our mind consisted of the struggles that have gone on in different parts of the world. Indian revolutionaries studied the Risorgimento Movement in Italy inder the leadership of Mazzini and Garibaldi and the struggle of the Irish people against their British oppressors. In Russia, before the last World War, there was, as you know, a movement against the Czar called Nihilist movement. That also was studied. And nearer India the new awakening of China under the leadership of Dr Sun Yat-sen was also studied very closely and with great interest by the Indian revolutionaries.

    Thus, Indian revolutionaries have been exceedingly receptive to the influences exerted by revolutionary struggles abroad. Then during the last World War, when the revolution broke out in Russia and, as a result of it, a new government - the Soviet Government - came into existence, the work of that Government was studied with great interest in our country.

    People in India has not been interested so much in the Communist movement as in the work of reconstruction of Soviet Russia-in rapid industrialisation of that country and also in the way in which the Soviet Government solved the problems of the minorities. It is this constructive achievement of the Soviet Government which was studied with great interest by people in our country. As a matter of fact, intellectuals like our poet Tagore, who had no interest in Communism as such, were profoundly impressed when they visited Russia in the work of educational reconstruction in that country. Then there is another influence which came to India form outside in more recent times-I mean, the new movement in Europe headed by Italy and Germany called Fascism or National Socialism. This movement was also studied by our revolutionaries.

    I have just dealt with some of the influences that have reached India form different parts of the world, form England, France, Japan, China, Russia, Germany and so on. I will now take up another question viz., as to how we have reacted to these influences-how much we have accepted and how much we have rejected out of these outside influences.

    In dealing with this question of our reaction to these outside influences, I must first point out that there is a big gulf between our generation and the last generation. As typical exponents of the last generation, I would like to mention Tagore and Gandhi. They represent for us the last generation, and between their thoughts and ideas and the thoughts and ideas of our generation there is a big gulf.

    If you study the works of Tagore and Gandhi, you will find that all along there is a conflict in their minds as to what their reaction to the Western influence should be. So far as Mahatma Gandhi is concerned, he has never given us any clear solution this problem. He has left people in doubt as to what his attitude is toward the acceptance of Western ideas. Generally speaking, his attitude is one of antagonism. But in actual practice he has not always acted in accordance with his own ideas, the reason being that the rest of the countrie do not share that hostility or antagonism which Mahatma Gandhi personally has toward Western ideas and concepts.

    You all know about Mahatma Gandhi\\'s attitude on the question of violence of physical force. He does not advocate the use of arms, or the shedding of blood of the enemy for gaining one\\'s freedom. This attitude towards violence or physical force is closely related to his general attitude toward foreign influence, particularly Western influence.

    Our generation has followed Mahatma Gandhi as the leader of a political struggle, but has not accepted his ideas on all these questions. Therefore, it would be a mistake to take Mahatma Gandhi as the exponent of the thoughts and ideas of the present generation in India.
     
  16. bengalraider

    bengalraider DFI Technocrat Stars and Ambassadors

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    part 3 continued from above

    Gandhi is in some ways a complex personality and I would like to analyze his personality, so that you may understand him better. In Gandhi, there are two aspects-Gandhi as a political leader and Gandhi as a philosopher. We have been following him in has capacity as a political leader, but we have not accepted his philosophy.

    Now the question arises as to how we can separate the two aspects. Why, if we do not accept his philosophy, are we following him? Though Gandhi has his own philosophy of life, he is a practical politician and therefore, he does not force his own philosophy on the people. Consequently though we are following him in our political struggle, we are free to follow our own philosophy. If Gandhi had tried to thrust his philosophy on us, we would not have accepted him as a leader. But he has kept his philosophy separate from his political struggle.

    I have mentioned as representatives and exponents of the last generation Tagore and Gandhi. Now let us compare their philosophies. There are some points in which they agree, but in some other points they do not. The points on which they agree are firstly, that they would like to see the national struggle being conducted with out the use of arms. In other words, on the question of physical force, they have the same views. On the question of industrialization of the country, they also have the same views. Both Tagore and Gandhi are against modern industrial civilisation. But in realm of culture, their views are not same. So far as thought, art and culture are concerned, Tagore is prepared to accept foreign influence. He believes that in the realm of culture there should be full cooperation between India and the rest of the World and there should be reciprocity. We should not be hostile or antagonistic to the culture or art or ideas of any other nation. In the realm of culture while Tagore advocates full cooperation between India and rest of the World, Gandhi\\'s general attitude is antagonistic to foreign influence. We must however, remember that Mahatma Gandhi has nowhere given a very clear exposition of his views. I am only referring to his general attitude to this question.

    I have previously remarked that there is a big gulf between the fundamental thoughts and ideas of the last generation and our generation. I will now explain what I meant thereby. As I have just said, this problem as to what our reaction should be toward foreign influence and toward industrial civilization troubled the leaders of the old generation all their lives and we see proofs of it in their actions. But, this problem does not exist for us. It does not exist for us, because our starting-point is that we want a modern India based of course on the past. We do not believe that India can achieve freedom with out the use of arms. Now once you take up this attitude, that for winning freedom we have to fight and use arms, it follows that we must have modern industries. What constituted the biggest problem for the old leaders constitutes our starting point. The problem for modern India is not our attitude toward modernism or foreign influence or industrialization, but how we are to solve our present-day problems.

    I believe modern Japan will understand our generation much better than modern Japan understood the last generation in India. Our stand is virtually the same. We want to build up a new and modern nation on the basis of our old culture and civilization. For that we need modern industries, modern army and all those things necessary to preserve our existence and our freedom under modern conditions.

    Having dealt with the fundamental standpoint of my generation. I will go on to discuss some of the detailed problems. For the present, of course, the biggest problem is how to fight and win this war. But that is a problem of which you are aware from what you have read in the papers or heard over the radio. I will now consider some of the problems of Free India. The moment India is free, the most important problem will be organizing of our national defence in order to safe guard our freedom in future. For that we shall have to build up modern war industries, so that we may produce the arms that we shall need for self-defence. This will mean a very big programme of industrialization.

    After satisfying the needs of our nation in the matter of self-defence, the next problem in the degree of importance will be that of poverty and unemployment. India today is one of the poorest countries in the world, but India was not poor before we came under the British rule. In fact, it was the wealth of India which attracted the European nations to India. One cannot say that in the matter of national wealth or resources India is poor. We are rich in natural resources, but owing to British and foreign exploitation, the country has been impoverished. So our second most important problem will be how to give employment to the millions of unemployed in India and how to relieve the appalling poverty which now exists among the masses of the Indian people.

    The third problem in free India will be the problem of education. At present, under British rule, about 90% of the people are illiterate. Our problem will be to give at least an elementary education to the Indian masses as soon as possible, and along with that to give more facilities to the intellectual classes in the matter of higher education.

    Connected with the question of education is another problem which is important for India and that is the question of script. In India there are principally two scripts in vogue. One is the script known as Sanskrit (or Nagri) script and the other is Arabic (or Persian) script. Up till today in all national affairs and conferences we have been using both theses scripts. I must ad that in some provinces, there are scripts in vogue which are modifications of Sanskrit script. But fundamentally there are two scripts, and in all national affairs and conferences we have to use both these two scripts.

    There is now a movement to solve this problem of scripts by using the Latin script. I personally am an advocate of the Latin script. Since we have to live in the modern world, we have to be in touch with other countries and whether we like it or not, we have to learn the Latin script. If we could make the Latin script the medium of writing throughout the country, that would solve our problem. Anyway that is my own view and the view of my closest friends and collaborators.

    I have refereed to three important problems in Free India : National defence, how to remove poverty and how to give education to the people. If we are to solve these three important problems, how are we going to do it? Shall we leave it to private agency and private initiative or will the State take up the responsibility of solving these problems?

    Well at present, public opinion in India is that we cannot leave it to private initiative to solve these national problems, especially the economic problem. If we leave it to private initiative to solve the problem of poverty and unemployment, for instance it will probably take centuries. Therefore, public opinion in India is in favour of some sort of socialist system, in which the initiative will not be left to private individuals, but the state will take over the responsibility for solving economic questions. Whether it is a question of industrializing the country or modernizing agriculture we want the State to step in and take over the responsibility and put through reforms within a short period, so that the Indian people could be put on their legs at a very early date.

    But in solving this problem we want to work in our own way. We will, naturally, study experiments made in other countries-but, after all, we have to solve our problems in an Indian way and under Indian conditions. Therefore, the system that we shall ultimately set up will be an Indian system to suit the needs of the Indian people.

    Now if we do not tackle the economic question from the point of the view of the masses, the majority of who are poor, if we do not do that in India, we shall produce the same confusion or the same difficulties in our country, as we see in China today. You see in China today a split between Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party. Personally I do not see why this should have occurred or why, if Kuomintang Party has interests of Chinese masses at heart, there should be any need to have a separate party like the Communist Party under foreign influence.

    Having learnt from experience, we do not want to repeat the mistake that China has made. We actually find today that because the nationalist movement in our generation has identified itself with the peasants who form more than 90% of the people, because we have their interests at heart, there is no raison d\\'etre for a separate party like the Communist Party. If the nationalists in India did not have the interests of the masses at heart, then you would have seen the same phenomenon as you see in China today.

    Now we come to another question-namely, the political system or Government. If we are to have an economic structure of a socialistic character, then it follows that the political system must be such as to be able to carry out that economic programme un the best possible way. You can not have a so-called democratic system, if that system has to put through economic reforms on a socialistic basis. Therefore, we must have a political system-a State-of an authoritarian character. We have had some experience of democratic institutions in India and we have also studied the working of democratic institutions in countries like France, England and the United States of America. And have come to the conclusion that with a democratic system we cannot solve the problems of a Free India. Therefore, modern progressive thought in India is in favour of a State of an authoritarian character, which will work as an organ, or as the servant of the masses, and not clique or of a few rich individuals.

    That is our idea with regard to the political institution in Free India. We must have a government that will function as the servant of the people and will have full powers to put through new reforms concerning industry, education, defence, etc., in Free India.

    Before I pass into the next problem, I should like to mention another point, namely the attitude of Free India toward religion and caste. This is a question that is frequently asked. India has several religions. Consequently, the Government of Free India must have an absolutely neutral and impartial attitude toward all religions and leave it to the choice of every individual to profess to follow a particular faith.

    With regard to caste, that is now no problem for us, because caste, as it existed in the old times, does not exist today. Now, what is caste system? The caste system means that a community is divided into certain groups on a professional or vocational basis and marriage takes place within each group.

    In modern India there is no such caste distinction. A member of one caste is free to take up any other profession. So caste, in that sense does not exist today. Then there remains the question of marriage. In the old times, it was custom to marry within each caste. Nowadays, intermarriage between the different castes takes place freely. Hence caste is fast disappearing. As a matter of fact in the nationalist movement we never inquire as to what caste a man belongs to and we even do not know the caste of some of our closest collaborators, which shows that in our generation we do not think at all about caste. For Free India, therefore, caste is no problem at all.

    In this connection, I should like to tell you that it was the British who created the impression throughout the world that we are a people quarrelling among ourselves, especially over religion. But that is an absolutely wrong picture of India. It may be that there are certain differences among the Indian people, but such differences you will find in every other country. If we take the so-called progressive countries of the world, e.g., France before the outbreak of the present war, or Germany before Hitler and his Party came to power, you will find that there were acute differences among the people in these countries. Spain had even a first-class civil war.
     
  17. bengalraider

    bengalraider DFI Technocrat Stars and Ambassadors

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    the final part of the 4 part series

    But nobody ever says that, because the people in these countries had disputes and differences, they are not fit to rule themselves. It is only in case of India that the British say that, because there are certain differences among Indian people therefore they are not fit to be free. Again, the fact is that whatever differences there are among the Indian people are largely the creation of the British Government. There are hundreds of examples to show you that throughout the history of British rule, the British have tried by every possible means to divide the Indian people. After having done so much to artificially create differences among the Indian people the British turn around and say that we are not fit to be free.

    I should also point out that if you take a modern power like Soviet Russia and see how heterogeneous the composition of the Soviet Union is, you will realise that if, in spite of this heterogeneous character, so many different races professing so many different religions could be unified in one political system and become such a strong Power, there is absolutely no reason why India which has much more homogeneity than the Soviet Union, should not be united as one nation. As a matter of fact, you will find that outside India, where there is no British influence, there are no differences among the Indian people. In the Independence Movement in East Asia and in the Indian National Army there is no question of religion or caste or class. It is just in India where the British have influence and control that you will find these differences.

    On the question of National unity, I should like to give you a friendly warning that British propaganda tries to give the world the impression that the Muslims of India do not support the independence movement. This is wrong. Very often you read in the papers about certain organizations like the Muslim League or the Hindu Mahasabha. The British boost these organizations, because they are in their policy pro-British and are against the Indian National Congress, and they try to make out that the Muslim League represents the Muslims of India. But that is British propaganda. The fact is that the Muslim League and its leader , Mr. Jinnah, represent only a minority of the Indian Muslims. The majority of the Indian Muslims are nationalists and they support the independence movement, as much as anyone else. The President of the Indian National Congress is a Muslim, and so are many other members of the congress, many of whom are in prison today.

    These facts are not known to the outside world and the outside world gets the impression that Mr.Jinnah represents all the Muslims of India and that they are not supporting the nationalist movement. So I would like to give out this warning about British propaganda.

    I have already told you about the kind of economic and political system that we would like to have in Free India. Out of this, arises the problem as to what our political philosophy is. On this question, I gave my own views in a book I wrote about 10 years ago called "The Indian Struggle\\'. In that book I said that it would be our task in India to evolve a system that would be a synthesis of the systems in vogue in different parts of the world. For instance, if you take the conflict between Fascism (or what you might call National Socialism) on the one side and Communism on the other, I see no reason why we cannot work out a synthesis of the two systems that will embody the good points of both. It would be foolish for any one to say that any one system represents the last stage in human progress. As students of philosophy, you will admit that human progress can never stop and out of the past experience of the world we have to produce a new system. Therefore, we in India will try to work out a synthesis of the rival systems and try to embody the good points of both.

    Now I would like to compare some of the good points of National Socialism and Communism. You will find some things common to both. Both are called anti-democratic or totalitarian. Both are anti-capitalistic. Nevertheless, in spite of these common points, they differ on other points. When we see National Socialism in Europe today, what do we find? National Socialism has been able to create national unity and solidarity and too improve the condition of the masses. But it has not been able to radically reform the prevailing economic system which was built up on a capitalist basis.

    On the other side, let us examine the Soviet experiment based on Communism. You will find one great achievement and that is planned economy. Where Communism is deficient is that it does not appreciate the value of national sentiment. What we in India would like to have is a progressive system which will fulfil the social needs of the whole people and will be based on national sentiment. In other words, it will be a synthesis of Nationalism and Socialism. This is some thing which has not been achieved by National Socialists in Germany today.

    There are few points in which India does not follow Soviet Russia. Firstly, class conflict is some thing that is quite unnecessary in India. If the Government of free India begins to work as an organ of the masses, then there is no need for the class conflict. We can solve our problems by making the State the servant of the masses.

    There is another point which has been overemphasized by Soviet Russia and that is the problem of the working classes. India being predominantly a country of peasants, the problem of the peasants will be more important than the problem of the working classes.

    Another point on which we do not fully agree is that, according to Marxism, too much importance is given to the economic factor in human life. We fully appreciate the importance of the economic factor which was formerly ignored, but it is not necessary to overemphasize it.

    To repeat once again our political philosophy should be a synthesis between National Socialism and Communism. The conflict between thesis and antithesis has to be resolved in a higher synthesis. This is what the law of the Dialectic demands. If this is not done, then human progress will come to an end. India will, therefore, try to move to the next stage of political and social evolution. I will now pass on the last point in my address, and that is our conception of an international order. On this point I have already spoken several times in Tokyo. I fully support the steps that have been taken through the Joint Declaration to create a new order in East Asia on the basis of freedom, justice and reciprocity. I have been personally greatly interested in international problems, having tried to work in several countries in order to get support for our movement and, in that connection; I also had the opportunity of studying the work of the League of Nations.

    The experiment of the League of Nations has failed, and it is desirable and profitable for us to investigate as to why it failed. If I were to answer that I would say that it failed because the sponsor-nations were too selfish and short-sighted. The sponsor-nations were England, France and America. America dropped out of the League, so the Powers that controlled the League were England and France. Now these two leading Powers, instead of setting an example of unselfishness, tried to use the League of Nations for their selfish interests and for their own benefit. The only basis on which we can set up an international order is freedom, justice and reciprocity. Therefore, the work in East Asia has commenced on the right lines and on the right basis. The only task that remains for us is to see that in actual work the principles embodied in the Joint Declaration are put into effect. If they are so put into effect, then the experiment will be a success. If not, then it will again prove to be a failure.

    You must have seen in my speeches and press statements that I have been very enthusiastic about this Joint Declarations. There are several reasons. Firstly, it is on the right basis and on the right lines that the work has began. Secondly, if you want to set up an international order, it has to have a beginning in a particular region. If we make it a success in one region, it can gradually be expanded all over the world.

    It is very difficult to set up a world order suddenly out of nothing and make it a success. But if you begin in one region where friendship and reciprocity between the nations can be developed, and if in that region you meet with success, then that example will be emulated by other nations in other parts of the world. So the method of setting up of a regional order is the only way in which a world order can gradually be built up.

    The third reason is that I have found that this idea or plan find support among the mass of the people if this country, and especially among the youths. If I had found that this new order was being sponsored by a few politicians or leaders and that the rest of the nation was apathetic or indifferent, I should certainly not be optimistic. But it is because I have found that the people as a whole, and especially the youths are vitally interested in it and support it enthusiastically, that I believe that through the co-operation of the leaders and the people and the youths, it can be made a success.

    I should like to repeat that this undertaking is for the Government and the people of this country a very great responsibility. As you know, your Government was responsible for sponsoring this idea, so you are the sponsor-nation. The success of this experiment will depend on the example set by the sponsor-nation. The League of Nations failed, because the sponsor-nations were selfish and short-sighted. This time if the nations that have joined together, and particularly the sponsor-nation, avoid a selfish and short-sighted policy and work on moral basis, then I see no reason why the experiment should not be a success.

    I should like to emphasize again the tremendous responsibility which Japan has undertaken by becoming the sponsor-nation in this task. And when I talk of the responsibility of the nation, I want also to stress the responsibility of the youths. The youths of today will be the nation and leaders of tomorrow. An idea that is welcomed and supported by the youths will one day be supported by the whole nation. But an idea which does not find support among the youths will die a natural death. Therefore, their responsibility for making this new order a success devolves, in the last analysis, on the youths of this country. I hope and pray and trust that the youths and the students who are the future representatives of the nation will realise the tremendous moral responsibility which Japan has undertaken in initiating this new order.

    There may be people who doubt whether a nation can rise to a high moral level, whether a nation can be farsighted and unselfish and undertake the work of establishing a new order. I have every faith in mankind. If it is possible for one individual to be unselfish, to live one\\'s life at a high moral level, I see no reason why an entire nation cannot also rise to that level. In the history of the world we have seen examples in which a revolution has changed the mentality of a whole nation and made it rise to a high level of morality. Therefore, if anybody has any doubt whether an entire nation can rise to that level, then I do not share that doubt.

    I repeat, in conclusion, that the sponsor-nation should realize the tremendous responsibility that it has undertaken. This is a task not only for the leaders and the politicians, but for the whole nation and especially for those who are the hopes of the nation-the youths and the students.
     
  18. amoy

    amoy Senior Member Senior Member

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    Netaji Subhash Chander Bose - regretably he took side with Japan as a 'sponsor nation' in WW II. Apart from controvercy over that he's a great forerunner for independence and 'social experiment'.
     
  19. Pintu

    Pintu New Member

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    Actually Netaji taken the Path to Hit the enemy with the help of its enemy , the policy is 'Enemy's Enemy is the friend' nor his war effort was directed against China and any other Asian nations or against the interest of their citizen, he is beyond any controversy and still leader of our heart.

    Regards
     
  20. JBH22

    JBH22 Senior Member Senior Member

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    Bose - The Forgotten Hero (2005) w/ Eng Sub - Hindi Movie




    Good Movie my humble respects to this great men.
    Men of conviction is a rare thing these days.
     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 10, 2015
  21. nrj

    nrj Stars and Ambassadors Stars and Ambassadors

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    What Social experiment?

    There is no controversy for what he did for his country.
     
    Kunal Biswas and Pintu like this.

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